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  • 太極拳

    太極拳


    太極拳は中国伝統的な儒学と道教の哲学を運用して、太極、陰陽弁証法的という理念を核心、中国の非物質文化遺産と認められている。性情休養、健康長寿、対抗技撃などを一体とされたものです。易学の陰陽五行思想や、中医経路学、古代の引導術、吐納法と呼ばれる呼吸法などを取り入れて編み出した内外兼修、柔軟、緩慢、軽くて、剛柔兼備の漢族伝統拳術である。

    太極拳
    1949年から、編集委員等によって競技・表演用に整理された太極拳や、健康体操などとなりました。改革開放後、その中の一部は本来の形態に戻りできましたので、武術試合用の太極拳、体操用の太極操、太極推手に分かれていた。よく見られたのは陳家、楊式、武式、呉式、孫式、和式などですが、伝統的な太極拳は色々な門派があります。各派はお互いに参照し、伝承的な関係もあれば、それぞれの特徴もあって、百花斉放といっても過言ではない状態です。太極拳は現代発展してきた拳種だから、流派が多くて、群衆基盤も広いし、中国武術拳種の中で、なかなか生命力を持っている一支である。

    1、拳種の紹介


     

    太極拳は漢族弁証法的な理論思想と武術、芸術、引導術、中医などの完璧な結合である。中国伝統的な儒学と道教の哲学の太極、陰陽弁証法理念を核心の思想として、性情休養、トレーニング、対抗技撃などの効用を一体にしたハイレベルの人体文化である。東方包容理念を込めた運動形式として、練習者は意、気、形、神に対しての鍛えと人体が生理と心理への要求はぴったりであり、人間の心身健康及び群体的な調和に極めて重要な促進作用がある。

    源流

    太極拳は中国伝統的な特色元素を込めた漢族文化形態である。

    17世紀の半ば、河南省温県陳家溝に住んでいた陳王廷は家伝拳法の上、様々な武術の要素を組み合わせ、易学、中医などの思想を融合し、陰陽開閉、剛柔兼備、内外兼修の新拳法を編出して、『太極拳』と命名した。

    太極拳は陳家溝で世代伝承され、陳氏14世・陳長興からはじめて発信した。それから楊式、武式、呉式、孫式、和式など様々な門派が生み出した。

    377adab44aed2e739dcd4a6e8601a18b87d6fa48_副本

    太極は中国古代の最も特色と代表性のある哲学思想の一つである。太極拳は太極陰陽の理念を基づき、意念で全身を統領、静かな状態に入り、リラックスして、意で気を呼び出し、気で形を催した反複練習を通し、妙手一運一太極、太極一運無になる境界に入り、精神休養、性情陶冶、トレーニング、長寿延年といた目的に達する。

    太極拳の基本内容は太極養生理論、太極拳拳術套路、太極拳機械套路、太極推手及び太極拳補助訓練法などが含められた。その拳術套路に見た目の動作が比較的大きい大架式と見た目の動作が比較的小さい小架式の2つのスタイルがあり、その大架式と小架式はまたそれぞれ一路と二路に分かれている。機械套路には単刀、双刀、単剣、双剣、単鐧、双鐧、銃、大棒と靑龍偃月刀などがあります。

    太極拳の特徴

    太極拳が含蓄、柔軟で延々と続く動き、柔をもって剛を制し、激しい動作と緩やかな動作との交互、行雲流水な動きといった特徴を持った拳術スタイルは練習者の意、気、形、神を円滑に一体とし、武徳修養に対しての要求も練習者の体質を強化すると共に、自身素養も上がてきて、人間と自然、人間と社会の融合・調和も一層上がります。

    太極拳の基本内容は太極養生理論、太極拳拳術套路、太極拳機械套路、太極推手及び太極拳補助訓練法などがあります。その拳術套路に見た目の動作が比較的大きい大架式と見た目の動作が比較的小さい小架式の2つのスタイルがあり、その大架式と小架式はまたそれぞれ一路と二路に分かれている。機械套路には単刀、双刀、単剣、双剣、単鐧、双鐧、銃、大棒と靑龍偃月刀などがあります。

    太極拳は中華民族の武術至宝として、世界各地の人々に広く推奨・尊重しています。20世紀80年代から、各級政府及び広大な民衆、太極拳という古い文化体系の保護意識が日々に強化していくと共に、各政府は保護措置を相次いて制定し、太極文化を核心、各地で前後11回の国際太極拳交流大会を催しました。伝承者も民間伝承組織も太極拳の普及のために一層力を入れました。2006年5月、太極拳は第一陣の国家非物質文化遺産と中国政府は宣告しました。

    W1

    太極拳は次第に各人種、民族、言語及び国家を繋がる文化の絆となり、中国文化の対外交流・普及の重要な媒体となった際、太極拳文化を一層に伝承・普及のため、武当山の鐘雲龍、陳師行などの道長が相次いて武当武術伝統訓練クラスを開いました。21世紀から、多くの海外の人々が武当武術と太極文化を習うために武当へ来ています。武当へきて太極文化を探す人々に完善的、中心的な場所を提供できるように、彼らはまた新しい太極館の建設に取り込んでいます。

    2、歴史


    河洛文化

    黄河は中国では2番目に大きく、世界では5番目の長さである。中国の歴史では、「母親河」と呼ばれた黄河及びその周辺流域は人類の文明に巨大な影響を与え、漢族の最も重要な発祥地である。

    洛河は中国の歴史では重要な地位に占めている。まず「河図洛書」は古代の文字と緊密に繋がて、未開・無知の社会を文明の道へ推し進めた。

    洛河と黄河の合流は自然現象です。洛河の水が澄んでいるのに対して、黄河の水が濁っている。両河の合流で巨大な清濁分明、相互融合変換の渦が形成されました。

    ここは河出図、洛出書の所だけじゃなくて、伏羲が太極を悟り、八卦の絵を作成したところでもあったという伝説がある。『易传・系辞』では「河出図、洛出書、聖人がこれを則る」という記載がある。漢族人の人文始祖である伏羲が黄河と洛河の合流を見て、「河図」、「洛書」によって、霊感が溢れて、『易経』を作成できて、太極文化が生み出したことから、「天下の太極は河洛に生み出す」と古代から伝えられた。

    ずっと昔から、黄河と洛河が合流した所はいつでも太極文化の血が流れていて、河洛文化の脈を繋げ、中原文化の元を結び、中華文化の魂を含んでいる。漢族の文化の元といっても過言ではない。歴史の記載よって:黄帝、帝尭、夏禹、商汤などの帝王が即位する時、ここに玉を落ち、天を祭るものです。

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    黄河と洛河が合流する所においた温県は、河洛文化の核心区である。

    温県は人類活動の最初の集積地の一つであり、境内に遺存された仰韶文化遺跡と龍山文化遺跡が数十箇所があります。夏の時代に温国と呼ばれていたが、商の第十四代の王、祖乙が都を温地の邢へ移し、隆盛になった。周の初期、大司寇あるの忿生が国を成立し、温を国の冠とした。『盐铁論』の記載によると、「戦国の末期、秦漢のはじめに温県はもう海内で一番隆盛な天下名都になった」。

    傑出した人物が出てその土地が有名になるということで、温県も有名になった。温県の南は邙山があって、黄河を天然の障壁とし、北には太行を天険、晋、冀、魯、豫の交通の要路であり、地理位置はとても優越である。焦作の黄河公路大橋は連霍の高速道路と繋がって、焦温高速は南北を貫通し、他の道路も四方八方通じている。国家の重点工程西気東輸と南水北調は温県境内を通じ、鄭州、洛陽、焦作三市からそれぞれ約40-60キロで、南は黄河、北は沁水、東は武陟県、西は孟州市、西北は沁陽と接し、黄河と沁河の沖積平野である。

    温県は物が豊かで天候も良い。総面積は462平方キロメートル、十個の郷、262個の行政村を管轄し、総人口は44.6万人です。温県は北緯34°52′-35°02′で、東経は112°51′-113°13′に位置し、牛膝土地も肥沃で、種々の農作物がよく植える。年平均温度は14.3℃であり、牛膝部は平たい平野です。温県の農業は非常に発達し、小麦とトウモロコシが盛んでいて、四大懐薬(懐山薬、懐地黄、懐菊花、懐牛膝)の原産地でもある。

     

    武術の故郷

    陳家溝は河南省温県の東からろくキロの清風嶺中段に位置しています。村の南と黄河を越して向かい合っているは虎牢関、伏羲台、黄河と洛河の合流する所などがあります。陳家溝の西北近くのところに道教聖地の陽落山「二仙廟」があって、西南から百キロのところ少林寺があります。道教・仏教・儒教の文化はここに集まるによって、中華文明の発展を推進する重厚な中原文化が生まれました。

    明朝のはじめ、陳家溝陳氏の祖先陳卜が家伝武術を持って、山西からここに移民した。ここは溝と谷が縦横していて、兵と強盗もよく出沒して、庶民を騒擾していた。村を守るために、陳家溝の人々は武学社を成立して、武術を学ぶことも風潮になった。独特な人文地理環境と重厚な漢族伝統文化は陳王廷が編出した陳氏太極拳に大きな影響を与えました。

    明朝万歴年間二十八年に生まれた陳家溝陳氏第九代、陳王廷(字奏廷、1600~1680)は明の武庠生とともに、清の文庠生でもある。彼の祖父陳思貴は陝西狄道県(今の甘粛临洮県)の典史で、父陳抚民は征士郎を担任していた。二人とも武術に夢中になっていた。

    陳王廷は子供の頃から勉強家でした。昼は武術を練習し、夜は文学を勉強していた。家学の真伝を引き受けて抜群するとともに、諸子百家を熟読、とても博学でした。文武兼備、拳術を精通し、抜群の軽功を身につけていた。陳王廷は若い時山東一帯で走镖(古代用語、荷物を護送すること)、匪賊を掃討したから、匪賊たちが陳王廷の名を聞くだけで胆をつぶしました。晩年の陳王廷は郷里に隠居、『黄庭経』と伴い、易学を研究し、民間武術を収集して整理していた。かれは太極をもって、中国伝統的な「天人一体」という思想と陰陽相克の理念を従って、家伝武術の上に様々な武術の要素と自分が一生をかけて悟った武術を組み合わせ、中医経絡学と道家吐納法を一体に融合し、緩急の激しい鋭い動作、陰陽交互、変化の激しい武術拳種――太極拳を編出しました。

    陈家沟

    陳王廷が伝授してきたのは五路拳、五路捶、108式長拳、双人推手などの太極拳套路がありますが、徒手の応用として、太極刀、太極剣、太極棍、槍、锏、双人黏槍など武器術の套路も伝承されている。その中で双人推手と双人黏槍が空前の独特スタイルです。

    趙堡镇に来ると、太極文化の聖地に歩みくるような感じがします。ここに人々に尊敬されている太極拳歴代模範たる師匠の記念館もあれば、国内海外に有名な中国太極拳博物館もあります。

    1982年、太極拳の影響で、国務院は温県を”甲級対外開放県”を確立しました。1992年11月、国家体委は温県を全国第一級の”武術の故郷”を命名し、2006年5月20日、国務院は太極拳が第一代の国家級非文化遺産であるということを公布しました。それに、2006年6月2日、中国民間文芸団体に”中国太極拳の発源地”を命名され、温県に”中国太極拳文化研究基地”も設立ました。2007年7月31日、温県は中国武術協会に”中国武術太極拳の発源地”と命名されました。そして、2008年8月20日、中国政府は太極拳を連国の人類非物質遺産に申請する仕事を始めました。2010年4月、温県は世界華僑団体、中国文化促進会及び国際インフォーマル経済促進会に”中国十大文化リレクス旅行県”と褒められました。2011年9月、温県は河南の登封県、河北の沧州とあわせて人気の一番高い中国武術の故郷”と評価され、それに最上位にたてました。

    名門流派

    河南省温县陳家溝で発祥あしてきた太極拳は東方文化の宝で、中華武苑の古い貴重な財産となりました。明末、清朝の初期、陳王廷によって懸命に研究し、編纂していました。その後、太極拳は先に陳家溝の陳家族の百年もある伝承を受け継いで、14世代の陳长兴(字云亭、1771~1853)や陳本(字道生、1780~1858)の時、2人はそれぞれ太極拳大架道、二路と太極拳小架道、二路を編纂しました。陳长兴は理論上の太極拳をまとめ、「太極拳の十大要素』、『太極拳武術の要言』、『太極拳戦闘編」などの名作を書きました。[ 2 ]
    清朝後期から民国まで、太極拳は外に伝播し始めました。また、陳长兴は初の外姓生徒に太極拳を伝授し、生徒の河北永年人杨露禅(名福魁、1799~1872)は、故郷へ帰ったら、北京へ太極拳を広め、徐々に杨式太極拳を変遷しました。陳第十五世代の陳清平君1795~1868)が温县趙堡镇人と兆元(関係~890)、河北永年人武禹襄(名河清、1825~1893)、温县陳新荘人李景炎(またの名李、1825~1898)、温县南张羌村人李作智(字鏡心、1844~1914)と温县北寒村人王赐信(1815~890)に伝授し、後は5人それぞれ和式太極拳、武式太極拳、太極拳突然雷機、太極拳腾挪架、太極拳忽灵架を創り出しました;そして、清末になると、満州族人全佑(字公甫、1834~1902)は杨家から杨式太極拳を学んだ後、子の吴鉴泉(漢姓から、1870~1942)に伝授し、呉式太極拳を創り出しました。河北武清(今天津武清区)人李瑞东(名树勋、1851~1917)は王蘭亭(名永泰約1829~1893)に師事し、後は李式太極拳を創り出しました。
    民国初期、河北完県(今順平県)の孙禄堂(名福全、1860~1933)は郝为真(1849~1920)に師事し、その後、孙式太極拳を作り出しました、20世紀の50年代、陳家溝陳十七世代の陳发科(字福生、1887~1957)、先祖伝来の拳機械型の基礎の上で、新しい機陳式太極拳を一路、二路を創り出しました。[ 5 ]
    三百年後、太極拳は陳家の独得の秘から、陳式、杨式、武式、呉式、孙式や式太極拳などさまざまな流派で広く国内外に伝播するようになりました。
    太極拳の発祥地温县には、陳式太極拳と式太極拳、太極拳忽雷架、太極拳腾挪架、太極拳忽灵架が伝わっていて、河北省永年県には、杨式太極拳、武式太極拳が伝わって、北京市に呉式太極拳、孙式太極拳が伝わり、天津市武清区には李式太極拳が広がっています。
    太極は無極からはじめ、両儀に分けられます。両儀から3材にわけ、3材から四象が現れ、それから八卦に進化します。「易経」によって陰陽の理、漢方医の経絡学、誘導、吐纳を総合して、陰陽の性質、人体の構造、大自然の法則に合う拳法を創造し、古人は「太極」といいます。
    3全体特徴の編集

    概括

    農家の演武

    太極拳は技撃に独特な点を持っています。静で動に対応、柔をもって剛を制す、実物をさけ、虚を攻め、、他力を借りて力を出して、すべて客観的な主張から出発して、人によって生かします。「彼は動かずにいて、己を先に」、「髪先まで」は、ライバルを導入させ、無重力を外れさせて、あるいは相手の力を分散して、全力で反撃します。太極拳のこの技撃の原則を体現し、また訓練の要領は人の反応能力、パワーとスピードなどの体の素質を訓練するだけでなく、攻防格闘訓練にも非常に重要な意義も持っています。[ 5 ]
    太極拳技撃法も陰陽の理に従い、「取引化合発」を主な技撃過程です。技は、相手の来力を聞いて、力の大きさや方向を感知し、「その勢いを沿って道を直す」と、来力を薄くして、それから力を借りて力を出します。

    太極拳の8種類:掤(解消や合力発人に応用)、捋(力を借りて後ろに力を伸ばす)、挤(下半身に力を出す)、按(前回の外掤力、または作反関節持ち方)、採(相手の力に沿って捕まえて、または持ち方)、挒(侧掤の力で相手のバランスを破壊する)、肘(肘の先で人を攻める)、靠(肩で人を攻撃する)。太極拳は一種の技撃術である。「柔をもって剛を制すを待つ動、丸を直に、小で大を勝つ、弱で强を勝つ」のはその特徴です。「9」

    全面性

    太極拳は一項の全面的なシステム工事で、その上、一種の漢族伝統文化の特色のある総合学科です。太極拳は人間と社会、人と自然と人体自身に関する問題及びに、古典文学、物理学、養生学、医学、武、生理学、心理学、運動バイオダイナミックスなどを含めています。それは東方文学の宇宙観、生命観、道徳観、人生観、競技観を表しています。[ 5 ]

    適応性

    太極拳は動作が柔らかくて、スピードも遅くて、拳式は難しくはありません。しかも姿勢の高さまた運動量の大きさも個人の体質によって異なり、色々な年齢別、体質に適応できますので、老弱者の特許ではありません。理論研究も実踐も、武術の向上も、益寿養生にも、個人のために人生の完備にも参加でき、その中からそれぞれ必要を取れます。[ 5 ]

    安全性

    太極拳は柔軟かつ円滑で、力でなくで意念で運動する特徴は、習得者の力を除けて、筋肉、関節、靭帯などの臓器の損傷性避けることができます。また、太極拳は力を出す習慣や本能を変えられ、力不当とや呼吸不当による息苦し、血気の阻害を避けることもできます。[5 ]

     

     

     

  • Shaolin Kung fu

    Shaolin  Kung fu

    Shaolin Kung fu is one of schools of Chinese material arts with a long history. The aim is to reach the highest level of combination of Zen and Wu(Kung fu). The ShaolinTemple was the cradle of zen Buddhism. Zen Buddhism was to have a quiet and clear mind and deeply think over everything in the world until they understand the real meaning of life. In the theory of Buddhism, zen meditation is exactly the right thing to do,While the skills of Quan are the last thing to consider. The monks can progressively concentrate their minds on Buddhism in process of practicing Kung fu. In the meantime, they also train their body and reinforce the ability to keep the temple safe.

    shaolin kung fu shaolin kung fu

    Brief introduction

    Shaolin temple

    Sport : Kung fu

    Place: Song Shan

    Found time: A.D.495

    The number of people: around 6000

    Founder: the empire Xiao Wen

    Famous people: bodhidharma, Hui Ke, Yi Jing

    The contents of Shaolin Temple

    1. The cultural heritages

    2. The nouns of Buddhism

    3. The Shaolin Kung Fu

    The system of Kung fu

    Zen and Quan

    The Song Shan Temple

    The zen of Kung fu

    The spirit of Shaolin

    The regulations of Shaolin

    4.The representative figures

    Shi Yanwu

    Shi Yongxin

    5. Films

    6. The explanation of Kung fu

    7. Songs

    The fundamental information

    Songs and lyrics

    The introduction of singers

    8. The Kung fu actors

     

    1. the cultural heritages

    When it comes to Chinese Kung fu, people will immediately think the Shao Lin Kung fu. Obviously, Shaolin Kung fu has become the symbol of Chinese material arts. Shaolin Kung fu means a kind of Kung fu formed in the special situation of the Song Shan Temple,whose core belief is the king of Jin Na Luo and performing style is based on the Kung fu showed by those monks in that temple. It is a complete system of epitomizing the wits of traditional Buddhism culture. As a saying goes All material arts in the world come from the Shao Lin Temple. When it comes to Chinese Kung fu, almost all people will immediately think the Shaolin Kung fu. In 2005, Chinese Kung fu applied “Human oral and non-material cultural heritage masterpiece”. The Shaolin Temple applied the Kungfu rather than the WuShu. The Kung fu is studying the zen. Practicing Kung fu is to change ones personalities, qualities and behaviors. The monks in Shaolin Temple train kung fu for the sake of the studying.

    Shaolin Kung fu Shaolin Kung fu

    2. the nouns of Buddhism

    kung fu is a word originated in Chinese culture. It has the same meaning as Wu Shu. Wu Shu, was once a system of Taoism. Those Taoists desired to become the fairy by practicing Wu Shu. From the earliest TuNa, Ying Daoshu, it progressively evolved into a kind of movement of exploring the myths of human body. Combined with the realistic needs, it gradually developed into a sort of special culture. Why do we say Kung fu is a kind of special culture with Chinese characteristics? That is because, in China, kung fu is not only some kind of body movement, but it also has a deep connotation. For instance, the Taoism is aimed at practicing Kung fu, while the Buddhism is aimed at medicating the zen.

    Zen belongs to religion, its also a philosophy, which is a mainstream for human seeking feeling fulfillment. Since the Han dynasty, Buddhism developed very well in China and exerted a profound influence on Kung fu. So traditional kung fu had a close connection with zen.

    Shaolin kung fu Shaolin kung fu

    3.Zen master Shi Xing  The master of Qi Gong  The initial creator of international Shen Da Qi Gong

    He was the 32th successor of Shaolin Kung fu. He learned Shaolin Kung fu for over ten years and grasped the essence of Shaolin Kung fu. His internal work was very strong and his Shaolin Kung fu was extremely excellent. Owing to working as a safeguard and material arts coach for many years in Shenzheng, he had abundant teaching and practical experiences.

    He grasped many stunts such as Jin Zhongzhao, Tie Bushang, Yin Qigong, Er Zhichan, Acupuncture and Tie Shazhang,ect( Chinese names about these stunts). He could break iron and stone only by hands, use nunchakus like lightning with eyes covered and fight fast and maliciously with eyes closed. He was the coach of Tie Shazhang training school, the dean of the material arts association, the coach of Chan Wu Qi Gong training school, the director of Peng Shi film and television production company, and the director of Xing Yuan Xiang Zong Cultural Transmission company.

    Shaolin Kung fu Shaolin Kung fu

    4.The introduction of the master

    He was born in one of Chinese cultural cities Chong Qing in 1974. At an early age, he was ambitious and dreamed to an outstanding master. He started to learn Kung fu at an very young age,but he was very diligent. He stressed emphasis on morality and respect to others. What more impressed is that he devoted himself to study ancient material arts books for many years, at last he successfully summarized a series of unique secrets of Kung fu. He found out the book Shaolin Da Li Jinggang Yin Qi Gong once only succeeded by the abbot in the temple which has been lost for more than 300 years since the Yuan dynasty. The method was considered as the secret method which was used to guarantee Shaolin Temple safety. It surely had a sublime influence on home and abroad. Up until now, about 20,000 students were taught successfully, which has made a great contributions to Shaolin Kung fu.

    Zen master Shi Xing has got more than 300 champions in some international or domestic contests. It exerted a great effect on the world. His students were also very outstanding, most of who have won honorable awards in big contests. Many students were invited to act as coaches or teachers in training schools. Nowadays, Yin Qi Gong has stepped towards the global world, which provoked a hot wave of studying it, many masters of different schools sent their excellent students to learn from zen master Shi Xing. The zen master strongly opposed to strong body and simple brain. He required his students not only to train Kung fu but also to study cultural knowledge and social experiences. At the same time, he put emphasis on remembering those lessons in history. Zen master once educated some guilty men not to do bad things again and learned to be kind people. What he did indicated that he was brave and wise, he touched our hearts by means of his special personality charm. Therefore, he was respected by his students and was thought highly of his performance.

    In particular, his wits of zen was wisely recommended. He often told people that the highest level of knowledge was Confucianism and the highest level of wisdom was Buddhism. We must firstly be a good man and then learn to do good things. Only when you were a good man, everything would be easy to do well. Learning Buddhism was to cultivate our mercy as well as big and extensive heart.

    Shaolin Kung fu Shaolin Kung fu

    5.Shaolin Kung fu

    Shaolin Kung fu was well-known to Chinese people as a kind of culture of the humanities as well as a sort of human body culture particularly in keeping fitness, fighting against enemies, and competing in sports activities, which has been considered as a valuable Chinese cultural heritage.

    6.The system of Shaolin Kung fu

    Shaolin Kung fu was a huge system which was not a general “school” or “ Quan”. Shaolin Kung fu was complicated and had many schools, among which were Shaolin Quan in China’s middle areas, the Nan Quan in the eastern coastal areas, the North Shaolin in Beijing, Tianjin provinces, and Wing Chun in Guang Dong areas. All of these schools were famous for their long history, complete structures, and superb technical skills.

    Shaolin kung fu Shaolin kung fu

    7.The Combination of Zen and Quan

    Shaolin Kung fu was a huge system with all different kinds of technical skills.

    Shaolin Temple was distinguished for its combination of zen and Quan throughout the world. “the Quan got the same name as the temple, while the temple was famous for its Quan”. It developed into a special Kung fu system with practical experiences of the monks of every generation in this temple.

    The Shaolin Quan stressed emphasis on “ Da”, which meant a clear understanding of how to bring yourself to the best, particularly in those body gestures of arms and legs.

    Shaolin kung fu was a kind of comprehensive system. The most important is that zen was a fundamental and significant basis of improving Kung fu skills. The basic meaning of zen is keeping silence, thinking deeply, quietly, and carefully. Therefore, Shaolin Kung fu was different from other schools of Kung fu because of its combination of zen and Quan.

    8.Song Shan Shaolin Temple 

    As a saying goes “ All material arts come from the Shaolin Temple”. Undoubtedly, it was a truth. When I traveled to the Song Shan Shaolin Temple, along the road to the temple, I heard loud “yelling”(monks were training) at a far away distance. Luckily, I had a good chance to see a Shaolin Kung fu performance in the second biggest Kung fu training school---Shaolin E Po Material Arts professional school.

    About 20 young monks run from the back of the stage. Hou Quan(like monkey), Tang Lang Quan(like mantis), She Quan(like snake), Yin Qi Gong( a king of internal works), five gun sticks were pierced into their bodies, and using two fingers supporting the whole body, ect. Little monk named Jia Shuai who has practiced Shaolin Kung fu for anout three years chopped five thick bricks in a row, which truly amazed all of audiences there. Actually, he was a five- grade student of a primary school. However, he has been to Germany, Thailand and Indonesia, ect.

    shaolin kung fu shaolin kung fu

    Staffs in local travel agency stated that there were about 75 certified material arts training schools at the foot of the Song Shan Mountain, where always remained approximately 60,000 students learning Shaolin Kung fu. Among those students, most were from foreign countries. In order to learn Shaolin Kung fu well, they stayed in China for about four or five years or even longer. During the course of the Beijing Olympics, Shaolin Kung fu was approved to be one of the specific programs showing in front of the worldwide people, which definitely attracted more and more people to learn Shaolin Kung fu in Shaolin Temple.

    It is said that people who lived in Deng Feng city had a traditional interest, that is, enjoying training Shaolin Kung fu. As we all know, Deng Feng was exactly the city where Ren Changxia, the local chief police officer, once worked. Owing to people’s loving for Shaolin Kung fu, social security there would be better than other areas.

    9.The zen of Shaolin Kung fu

    Zen not only belongs to religion, but it’s also attributed to the category of philosophy, which is a mainstream for humans to seek feeling fulfillment in history. Since zen was transmitted into China in the Han dynasty, zen has been a synonymous word with Buddhism in the period of about one thousand years. Traditional Shaolin Kung fu was originated from the Shaolin Temple, which had a close connections with zen as well as Buddhism.

    It was because zen didn’t put much emphasis on the skills of Kung fu while paid attention to zen as the basis of Shaolin Kung fu that made monks in Shaolin Temple were accustomed to training Shaolin Kung fu in a quiet and carefree state. They stayed away from those problems of the outside world, had no intention of competing against others, and totally applied themselves to Shaolin Kung fu. Combined with traditional advantages of Shaolin Kung fu, many monks in Shaolin Temple were able to reach a high level of zen and Buddhism, which to the extent we had to owe to the profound influence of zen.

    The application of zen in Shaolin Kung fu was exactly providing learners a way to reach the highest level of Chinese Kung fu. The ultimate aim of Shaolin Kung fu was to train a strong heart which remained unmoved by outside matters and in the meantime keep a calm performance. Only by staying unmoved within heart and external calm behaviors can we grasp the essence of Shaolin Kung fu.

    Zen applied in Kung fu was not confined to the use of legs and arms. The real pure Shaolin Kung fu was not possibly to reach the highest level of unmoved hearts. The real objective of applying zen in Shaolin Kung fu was to learn it by means of zen (that is keeping a clam and unmoved heart in the process of practicing Shaolin Kung fu) rather than require the learners to reach the ultimate aim of Buddhism--zen. If the Shaolin Kung fu learners forgot to train in a unmoved and carefree state, they wouldn’t learn Shaolin Kung fu well.

    Shaolin Kung fu Shaolin Kung fu

    Owing to the accumulation and development of over thousand years, the zen and Shaolin Kung fu have been well combined together. The Wu of Shaolin Kung fu has been blended into the zen of Buddhism, which was exactly the difference from other systems of Kung fu. The strength of zen in Shaolin Kung fu was that it had formed a concrete and detailed training system. When it comes to practice Shaolin Kung fu, learners immediately realized that the importance of zen in use of Shaolin Kung fu. In essence, advocation of real value of zen in Shaolin Kung fu provided people with a concrete way to learn and train Shaolin Kung fu.

    China stressed emphasis on the protection of non-material cultural heritages. Therefore, on May20th,2006,it was added on the list of first National Non-material Cultural Heritages.

    Shaolin Kung fu Shaolin Kung fu

    10.The spirit of Shaolin Kung fu

    Nowadays, many scholars asked why the Shaolin Temple could overcome so many difficulties and still remained prosperous. Contrary to most people’s views, Chinese traditional culture---the Shaolin kung fu of the Shaolin Temple was popular all over the world. Perhaps, we were curious about the real reason for its popularity. In essence, it depended on the core spirit of Shaolin Kung fu which was succeeded and carried out by thousands of Shaolin monks in history.

    What is the spirit of Shaolin Kung fu? In fact, the spirit of Shaolin Kung fu was the rules and regulations of the Shaolin Temple which have been used for thousands of years. There were some records about the spirits of the Song Shan Shaolin Temple, for instance, practice Shaolin Kung fu for keeping healthy and defending our country against emeries; protect the Shaolin Temple; respect the old and help out the poor and the disable; support families and help parents; aid people in trouble and blow the bad; remain a clam heart and stay away from carnality, ect.

     

     

  • Bruce Lee

    Bruce Lee, his original name was Li Zhengfan, who was born in San Francisco in 1940. His Ancestral home was the Jun An town of Shun De city in Guang Dong province. He was the worldwide revolutionary pioneer of material arts, the boxing king , the philosopher of Kung fu, the initial creator of UFC, the father of MMA, the master of Kung fu, the initial creator of Kung fu movies, the founder of Jeet kune do, Chinese Kung fu actor, the first worldwide promoter of Chinese Kung fu, and the first Chinese actor in Holly Woods. His four films in Hong Kong broke many records for three times. Among the films, the fury of the dragon broke the Asian boxing records. Another film Enter The Dragon worked with the Holly Woods took $ 230 billion at the box office.

    In 1962, Bruce Lee established the material arts museum of Zhengfan. In 1967, he created Jeet kune do by himself. On 20th July, 1973, he was died in Hong Kong, only 33 years old. In 1979, the date 6th August was identified as the anniversary of Bruce Lee by municipal government of San Francisco. In 1993, America released the commemorative coin in remember of the 20th anniversary of Bruce Lees death. TheCelebrity avenue in Holly Woods was decorated with stars of Bruce Lee. At the same year, he got the credit of The LifetimeAchievement Award at the Hong Kong Films Awards. In Oct, 1998, he was awarded as the superstar of Kung fu films by the Chinese Wu Shu Association. In 1999, the Times made a list of the heroes and idles in the twentieth century. Bruce Lee, together with the died princess Diana and the former president Kennedy were all on the list. In the election of outstanding figures in 20th century held by seven electronic media companies in Hong Kong, Bruce Lee was honorably on the top one. In 2000, America released a series of the 60th anniversary commemorative stamp.This was third superstar awarded for the honor, followed by Marilyn Monroe and 007. He was also the first Chinese. The American magazine Black Belt released the commemorative album of the 30th anniversary of Bruce Lee death--- Bruce Lee had a profound influence on American material arts. In Oct, 2008, the worldwide memorial museum was started in the Ancestral home Jun An town in Shun De city. It covered an area of about 37000 square meters.

    Representative works  

    The Big Boss

    the fury of the dragon

    Enter The Dragon

    Jin Wumen

    6

     

    The brief introduction of Bruce Lee   

    Chinese name: Li Xiaolong(Li Zhengfan)

    English name: Bruce Lee

    Nationality: China, Han nationality

    Constellation: Sagittarius

    Blood type: O

    Height :173cm

    Weight :62kg

    Born place: San Francisco

    Born date:  27th Oct, 1940.

    Death date: 20th July, 1973.

    Profession: Kung fu master, actor, film maker, film writer, philosopher, philanthropist

    The brokerage company: Yuan Jiahe

    Representative works: The Big Boss, the fury of the dragon , Enter The Dragon ,Jin Wumen ,the Game of Death.

    Achievements: create Jeet kune do,nunchakus method

                  The best acting skill award of Taiwan's Golden Horse Awards

                  The LifetimeAchievement Award at the Hong Kong Films Awards

                  The legend Award of English Media Association

                  One of the ten masters of material arts in Black Belt

    Ancestral home: the Jun An town of Shun De city in Guang Dong province

    Cemetery: Seattlrye lake view cemete in America

    Wife : Linda.Murray

    Children: Li Guohao, Li Xiangning

    School: Wing Chun, Jeet Kune do

    Bruce Lee Bruce Lee

     

    The contents  

    1. life experiences

    Happy childhood

    Set up material arts museum

    Step towards globalization

    2. private life

    3. Main works

    TV series

    Films

    Books

    4. Main achievements

    Jeet Kune do

    Cun Quan

    nunchakus 

    Records of boxing

    5. The records of awards

    6. Figure anecdotes

    Teachers and friends

    7. Views on figure

    8. Figure memory

    Memorial service

    Cemetery

    Former residence

    Memorial museum

    Memorial activities

    Memorial works

     

    1. life experiences

    In 1941, Bruce Lee who was only three months old played in a film named Jin Mennv. In 1946, he went to school. In 1948, Bruce Lee in the name of Li Xin played in a film called Wealth was clouds. When Bruce Lee was at an young age, his father wanted him to build a fit body, so he was required to learn Tai-Chi Quan at an age of 7 years old. In 1949, he studied in Xin De school in Hong kong, then was transferred into the NaSha academical school and the Sheng Fangji school. Bruce Lee was into playing Cha-Cha dance, during the course of his living in Hong Kong, he often learned Quan from Shao Hansheng(a famous master of Quan) by the means of teaching him dance in turn.

    In 1945, he played the film Xi Luxiang as a male leading role, in which he played as an orphan

    from a good man to a bad one, then from a bad one to a good guy. At last, audiences all thought highly of his performance.

    On 12th April, 1951, Bruce Lee joined the premiere of the film The beginning of human. Then in 1954, he became the student of the master Ye Wen, learning Wing Chun Quan very hard. Besides, he also learned Tang Lang Quan, Hong Quan, Shao Lin Quan and Jie Quan, which laid a solid foundation for his Jeet keen do.

    In 1957, he won the champion Charlie Owen who kept the victory record for three years on the row in Sheng Fangji School. On 29th ,March, 1958, he became the champion in the Cha-Cha dance contest when he was in Sheng Fangji senior high school. At the same year, he acted a role of A san in the film of A solitary guy in a sea of people.

    Set up material arts museum

    At evening ten o’clock, April 29th, 1959, Bruce Lee left his homeland for America. During the course of May, he often fought with other students and resulted in bad academic grades. Therefore, his parents sent him to his born place in America. From September 3th, 1959 to December 2th, 1960, he was tutored in Edison Technical School in Seattle. Actually, Bruce Lee lived a hard life in Seattle.

    After going to the college, he devoted himself to learn Kung fu except his academic studies. He organized a “Chinese Kung fu team” at his college. They often trained and performed in front of teachers and students, thus obtaining the consistent high praise. Bruce Lee learned “Li San Jiao”, “Cun Quan” and “Gou Lou Shou” after his hard training. Bruce Lee was a generalist. He was not only good at all different kinds of Quan, but he was also well in using different sticks such as long stick, short stick, and shuang jie gun. At the same time, he studied Internal work (Qi Gong) and Yin Gong. In order to promote Chinese Kung fu, Bruce Lee rent a parking lot in the college to act as material arts museum when he was a sophomore student. Outside the parking lot, he raised a flag with a slogan of “ carry forward Chinese Kung fu”. In the meantime, he trained himself and taught others. Hard work ultimately paid back. He made a great progress in skills, especially the skills on legs.

    功夫7

    In his museum, he made an acquaintance with a medical girl named Linda who was also interested in learning Chinese Kung fu. The film A solitary guy in a sea of people broadcast in 1960 was his last Cantonese film before his studying abroad. Bruce Lee went to the Washington University in Seattle. And his major was drama, at the same time, he also studied courses such as philosophy and psychology. During his studying in the university, he won the Judo world champion Mu Cun Zheng Yan( a Japanese man). In 1961, he set up a dojo in his school to carry forward Chinese Kung fu. In March27th, he went to the university, subsequently he beat the karate world champion Shan Ben Gang Fu( a Japanese man).

    In order to improve his boxing skills, Bruce Lee not only learned all different kinds of Chinese Quan Shu, but he also studied foreign Quan. At that time, he saved money to take part in the foreign training school and buy some video documentaries about the boxing world champion Louis. By watching these video documentaries, he grasped his gaits and other methods. Besides, he often took part in some boxing contests to obtain abundant practical experiences. On the basis of his hard work, he created his own Jeet kune do.

    功夫4

    In April, 1962, 21-year-old Bruce Lee taught Chinese Kung fu in Seattle. At the same time, he set up a material arts museum, then he beat the boxing champion of the black market Thornton nim. The material art museum he established exerted an increasingly influence on people. Bruce Lee took part in many contests in different areas such as Seattle, Orlando, and Los Angeles, ect. In the meantime, he also established many material arts museums in those places to teach students who were interested in Chinese Kung fu.

    In 1963, he published a book A basic method of Chinese Quan, which was the only one book finished when he was alive. At that time, he met Linda, then in March 26th, he came back from America to see his parents and relatives. In August, he exempted from military services because of his unqualified body conditions. In October5th, his Kung fu performance was firstly designated as one of those performances on the opening day of the university. After 20 days, the relationship between Bruce Lee and Linda was determined.

    In the Autumn of 1964, Bruce Lee closed the Material Arts Museum in Seattle, then he left Seattle for the Broadway on July 19th. He took part in the International Karate Tournament on August 2th. The next day, his material arts museum restarted again. On August 12th, Bruce Lee was married with Linda. On 17th, they held their wedding in the local church. After their marriage, both of them dropped out of school in order to run the material arts museum better. At that time, Bruce Lee  honorably became the champion of Karate.

    In 1965, Bruce Lee accepted Huang Zeming’s challenge and won the competition, then he continuously taught foreigners to learn Chinese Kung fu. He beat Janice Berrer and became the world champion of Jiu-Jitsu at the same year. Later on, his son Li Guohao was born in Oakland, California on February 1th. Three days later, he joined the audition of the film named Chen Richard’s Eldest Son. On February 8th, his father was died from heart attack in Hong Kong. Then he hurriedly went back to his hometown and stayed there for about four months. Until September 21th, he formally signed the contract with the Hollywood film company. In September, they went back to Seattle to pay a visit to Linda’s parents and stayed there for four months.

    2

    In the March of 1966, Bruce Lee headed for Los Angeles to play the film Green Hornet. Then on April 30th, he signed the formal assignment with film company and started to take a formal training about the film for about two months. On June 6th, the film started to be on and September 9th, it was firstly broadcast in America. At the end of October, it was turned to broadcast on the 23th floor of the Pakistan Building.

    On January 27th, 1967, Bruce Lee played a role in the film Bat Man. On May 6th, he performed in the National Karate Contest. On June 24th, he took part in the Opening Competition of Karate in America and he also performed Chinese Kung fu. On July 9th, he created his style Jeet Kune Do. Five days later, he played in the film The Invincible Iron detective. On July 30th, he attended the International Karate Tournament.

    In 1968, he beat the world champion of Tae Kwon Do---Li Junjiu. In July 5th, he acted as the action director of the film the Destruction of the Army. The next month, he played a role of a Asian killer in the film the Scandal Bounty. On November 12th, he played in lovely woman, and next he played in the Bride is Coming on 15th-22th of November.

    In January 1969, he wrote a book named “ My firm goal in my life”. On April 19th, his daughter Li Xianglin was born in California. In the same year, he beat the king of the boxing Joe Fraziar. In 1970, Bruce Lee made full use of Jeet Kune Do beating all masters of those countries in the international boxing contest. Eventually, he won the world champion.

    In April, 1970, he went back to Hong Kong to visit his relatives with his son. He received the interview of Happy Tonight. On 15th, he went back home and rested because of his injury on his waist. In the summer, he traveled in Thailand and accepted the challenge of Nai Fu( the champion of Thailand).Undoubtedly, he beat him in a short time. With the improvement and development of his material arts museums, many worldwide action movie stars came to learn from Bruce Lee. For instance, the famous superstar Steve in Hollywood was also his disciple. The world boxing king Ali once came to his home to communicate about practical experiences. Many different schools of material arts in America often to challenge or learn in his material arts museums, which gradually reached a good effect once expected by the means of “ meet and communicate via material arts”.

    Stepping towards globalization

    In January, 1971, Bruce Lee cooperated with others to conceive the film No Sound Flute, but they didn’t make it at last. During the period of 24th, June to 1th, July, he played in the film Blindness. On 12th, July, he played in the film Tang Shan Brothers in Thailand, Bruce Lee hit the rival’s stomach,head and face for three times on the row during only 18 seconds. On 3th, September, he finished the film and received the interview of the program Huan. On 11th, October, Bruce Lee took his wife and children back his hometown Hong Kong. In the meantime, he also joined to play in Jing Wu Men and accepted some interviews. On 3th, December, he took part in a charitable activity. On 8th, December, he joined the Chinese Film Festival and then received a specific TV interview by Pierre Burton.

    In the summer of 1971, Bruce Lee was invited by Jia He film company in Hong Kong to play in two films which would paid for him 15,000 dollars. The first film was Tang Shan Brothers, actually at that time, the total calculated cost of this film was only 100,000 dollars. The film script was written and revised when the film was being produced. On that condition, the film ultimately achieved a big success and took 3000,000 Hong Kong dollars at box office, which has reached the highest record of box office since the beginning of film production in Hong Kong.

    In 1972, Bruce Lee played the film sequel of Jing Wu Men for Jia He film company. This film increased to double costs in budget than Tang Shan Brothers. Undoubtedly, the film then evoked a greater response among people and ultimately broke the past highest box office in Asia. Bruce Lee’s heroic spirit and amazing fighting skills displaying in the film, especially “Li San Jiao”, “Di Tang Quan”, and nunchakus, received high praises from nearly all audiences. In 29th July, his whole family moved to their private villa named Xi He Xiao Zhu in No.41 Jinbalun street of Jiu Longtang. In the same year, Bruce Lee who was the initial creator of Jeet Kune Do was chose as one of celebrities of an international authoritative magazine Black Belt, indicating that Jeet Kune Do created by Bruce Lee was recognized by international material arts. Subsequently, Bruce Lee played the films The Way of The Dragon, The Game of Death. Both of them were popular worldwide. Then he acted as the leading actor in the film Enter the Dragon which was produced by Hollywood Warner Bros film company. Enter the Dragon at that moment was very popular with American people and took a surprising box office there, even outperformed many Hollywood blockbusters broadcast in movie theaters at the same time . Since then, it has evoked a booming wave among foreigners to learn Chinese Kung fu.Also, action movie hereafter came into people’s sight in Hollywood.

    3

    In March 1973, in order to cooperate with Hollywood Warner Bros film company, Bruce Lee temporarily stopped the film The Game of Death and started to play Enter the Dragon. In June of the same year, he finished the film and continued to play the film The Game of Death in Hong Kong. When he came back and continued his unfinished film, Bruce Lee suddenly passed away in Hong Kong in July 20th, 1973. What a pity that he was only 33 years old at that time. In July 31th, Bruce Lee was buried at Seattle Lake View cemetery in Washington.DC. His son Li Guohao was also buried there. Bruce Lee’s death was still a myth up to now. Hollywood film company felt very pity losing such an outstanding action movie actor, so they adopted a variety of ways in honor of him.

    Bruce Lee Bruce Lee

     

    Personal life

    When Bruce Lee was still alive, he had a very ambitious dream that he wanted to the first Chinese action movie superstar in America who had the highest rewards,Since the beginning of 1970, he started to get a worldwide good reputation, after the year of 1980, he would had 15 million dollars in total, at that time, he together with his family would live a happy life.

    The wife of Bruce Lee was Linda, who was a Ireland girl and also from the Washington University. In 1963, she made acquaintance with Bruce Lee, and then her good friend Sue Ann Key introduced her to join the material arts museum set up by Bruce Lee. Since then, Linda became one of Chinese Kung fu Learners. Actually it was not easy for their combination. At the beginning, Bruce Lee had a girl friend from Japan named Amy. Their good appearance was received much attention in the University, unluckily, Bruce Lee broke up with Amy. Then Linda started to come up to Bruce Lee’ life. In 1963, they knew each other, next year, they got married in America. In 1965, Linda delivered a boy baby named Li guohao. In April,1969, their daughter Li Xiangling was born. On July20th, 1973, Bruce Lee was dead in a woman star’s family, doctor gave the reason for his sudden death was that he was diagnosed with hydrocephalus. But up until now, his death was still a myth for most people actually.功夫1

     

    In 1988, Linda—Bruce Lee’s wife was remarried to the writer Tom Brick who was a student as well as a good friend of Bruce Lee. In 1991, Linda remarried to a stockbroker Bruce Calder Will. His two children, a daughter and a son. The former continued his father Bruce Lee’ career, working in Hollywood. She mainly acted as a actress and a singer, later on she got married. In 1993, his son Li Guohao who was unfortunately shot by accident and died in the process of playing a film in north Carolina. He was shot on the abdomen by a misloaded prop gun when only 28 years old.

               

      

  • Wing Chun

    Wing Chun Quan

    Wing Chun Quan belongs to one of the Nan Quans( originate from the southern aeras of China) in Chinese traditional Quan Shu. It is said that Wing Chun Quan was derived from the middle time of Qing dynasty. At the early times, it was popular in Guang Dong, Fu Jian and other areas. It formed a set of practical course Wing Tsun by its widespread all over the world. We can learn  Wing Chun at the platform Wing Times by studying online and being taught offline. Fei Xiang Sui yue provide a good platform for us career development and planning in the field of Material arts training.

    Wing Chun Wing Chun

    The origin of Wing Chun has three different views: one is Yan San Niang who lived in Wing Chun town of Fu jian province; one is the monk of Shao Lin Temple ZhiShan took it from Fu Jian to Guang Zhou; one is it was created by Fang Wingchun himself. Wing Chun is a very special Quan besed on the line theory, whose Tao Lu(routine) include Xiao Nian Tou, Xun Qiao and Biao Zhi.

    In Dec, 2014, Wing Chun was chosen into national non-material cultural heritage.

    The brief introduction of Wing Chun

    Chinese name:Wing Chun Quan

    Foreign name: Wing Tsun Wing Times

    Popular areas: Asia, Europe, America

    Initial creator: Wu Mei Shi Tai

    Famous figures: Ye Wen Li Xiaolong Ye Zhun

    Sort: Wing Times

    Course : Wing Chun training course

    Program: Fei Xiang Sui Yue

    Address:the center of sport in Kung fu city in Shenzheng

    Wing Chun Wing Chun

    The contents of Wing Chun

    1.Wing Chun promotion rules

       Students promotion rules

       Teachers promotion rules

    2.history

       The lessons and experiences of teachers

       The origin of WT

    3.WT Wing Chun Wing Times

    4.WT figures

    5.The skills of WT

    6.The characteristics of WT

    7.Common Quan Shu

    8.The contents of Quan

    9.Famous figures

    10.Films actors

    11.Worldwide cultural heritage

    1.WT promotion

    The system of WT( Wing Times.net) is divided into students promotion and teachers promotion in a form of professional class, Kung fu class, and coach class. Wing Chun Times teaches us Wing Chun in an international standard. It provides those Wing Chun amateurs a relaxed and comfortable stage and show Wing Chun masters personal charm. At the same time, we put emphasis on students understanding and deep thinking as well as practical usage towards Wing Chun. We also focus on exploring what kind of value that traditional material arts culture has on modern society, so that we can find good solutions to solve the confrontations among those different schools of Kung fu. We hope all kinds of schools of Kung fu can blend together harmoniously.     

    Wing Chun Wing Chun

    Student promotion system

    The student promotion system is measured in a unit of “Jie”, its has 12 units in total. It uses different color badges to represent different stage or level of their students.

    Coach promotion system

    The coach promotion system is measured in a unit of “Ji”, which is divided into 12 Ji of 3 stages in total. Every stage is classified as 4 “Ji”. On the first stage, it takes about two or three years to get a promotion of one “Ji”. On the second stage , it need spend more time to make it. On the third stage, it’s mainly used to evaluate the feats and qualifications of the WT system in the process of its development.

    The History of Wing Chun

    1. The lessons and experiences of teachers

    2. The origin of Wing Chun

    Wing Chun is a branch of Chinese traditional Nan Quan. It is said that Wing Chun was originated from the middle times of the Qing dynasty. At the very beginning, it was prevalent in Guangdong and Fujian provinces. Wing Chun was created by Yan Sanliang who lived in a small village named wing chun in Fujian Province. Then people called it as Wing Chun. It is also said that Wing Chun was created by the material arts master Wu Mei and later on he taught it to his student Yan Yongchun(Yan Sanliang). So it was called as Wing Chun.

    At the early times of the Qing dynasty, the secret organization named Tian Di Hui( Hong Men)with a slogan of “overthrowing the Qing dynasty while supporting the Ming dynasty and enforcing justice on behalf of heaven” was severely suppressed by the Qing government, thus resulting in those Hong Men brothers escaped and homeless. Yan Er, the father of Yan Yongchun, was excellent in Quan. He was the director of Hong Men in Quanzhou city. Owing to wanted by the government, he took his daughter Yan Yongchun from his hometown to the town Lian Cheng(the origin place of Lian Cheng Quan). They made a living on selling tofu there. One day, an old man saw her practicing Kung fu, the old man came up to teach. The old man thought she  had a talent ,so he decided to teach what has mastered to him. Subsequently, Yan Yongchun combined what the old man taught with his father’s method, then created her own style--Wing Chun. Since then, Yan Yongchun continued to escape until she came to the southern areas. She ultimately taught students in Guang Dong province. Then her students continued to teach what she taught to other students, which made a major contribution to the widespread and development of Wing Chun.

    Wing Chun Wing Chun

    In the period of Tai Ping Rebellion, at that time(1954), Li Wenmao led his forces to fight against the Qing dynasty, which resulted in Cantonese Opera was banned for more than 15 years. Er Ti once learned Hong Quan(it was changed into Shaolin Quan later). According to the book The Summary of Wing Chun Bai He Quan, Bai He Quan was created by Fang Qiliang in the period of 1644-1662 in Fujian province. One day, Fang Qiliang saw a white crane flying in the blue sky and then rested on the roof of her house. The white crane performed different kinds of postures against her attacks. Eventually, she was deeply touched by the white crane and decided to create a sort of Quan on the basis of those postures. After many years’ research and development, she ultimately created Bai He Quan.

    Bai He Quan had a most profound influence on the town Wing Chun and there were the largest number of people who learned it in the town Wing Chun. Therefore, Bai He Quan theoretically and technically formed a special system with Wing Chun town’s humanistic and geographic characteristics. Because most people were from the town Wing Chun, people gave it the name Wing Chun Bai He Quan. Actually, Wing Chun was originated from Bai He Quan. Bai He Quan firstly created by Fang Qiniang has been improved by three generations and then was succeed by Wu Mei.

    As the Origin of Wing Chun (written by Ye Wen) recorded, Wu Mei was a famous master. After Shaolin Temple was firing, the five masters in the South Shaolin Temple made their living at different places. It is said that zen master Zhi Shan left for Guang Dong Province. Therefore, he became the initial master of Wing Chun in Guang Dong areas. There was a story in relation to his disciple Liang Erti about “exchange Quan with gun stick”. In a word, it has been proved that Wing Chun was a typical Quan derived from the South Shaolin Temple. In essence, some other schools of The south Shaolin such as Hong Quan, Cai Li Fo Quan, Liu Quan and Mo Jia Quan were all originated from Fo Shan city of Guang Dong province rather than Fujian province.

    Wing Chun Wing Chun

    Later on, material arts was severely prohibited on China’s continent, so Wing Chun as wel as Chinese traditional material arts were gaining a booming development in Hong Kong. Wing Chun which was well summarized by Liang Ting and its effective means of transmission resulted in a widespread of Wing Chun throughout the world in the next 40 years. Up until now, Liang Ting’s Wing Chun was continuously developing by means of WT material arts training schools. Its rapid development gradually stimulated the formation and development of other kinds of nationwide material arts training schools, which were warmly welcome by the masses.

    Wing Tsun  WT  Wing Times

    Wing Tsun was the English name of Wing Chun. When bringing Wing Tsun into China, in order to distinguish Wing Tsun and Wing Chun originated in China, Wing Tsun developed by means of WT training school( a platform named Wingtimes.net).

    In the middle times of 1960s, Bruce Lee introduced Chinese Kung fu on American material arts magazines. He has referred to Wing Chun which was spread in America and Canada. At that time, Bruce Lee did not consciously introduce the origin of Chinese Kung fu, but he stepped into the Hollywood and successfully became a movie actor because of his prominent performance of Chinese Kung fu.

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    Later on, Wing Chun Athletic Association was established in Hong Kong. The short name for Wing Chun was WC, however, in English world, WC commonly referred to as water closet, ultimately it was turned into another name Ving Tsun Athletic Association. Therefore, at early times, Wing Chun Athletic Association was promoted in name of Ving Tsun.

    However, there was also no “v” in Guang Dong dialects. After the Wing Chun master Liang Ting left Wing Chun Athletic Association to set up his own material arts groups, he called its English name Wing Tsun.

    In 1973, when Liang Ting formally registered Wing Tsun Leung Ting Material Art Association. Subsequently, it changed many times to adapt to international needs. So far, it became International Wing Tsun Association( a nonprofit organization in Hong Kong).

    Then all students used the name International Wing Tsun Association to transmit and promote Chinese Wing Chun in worldwide. Up to now, it has become the largest international Wing Chun organization and the biggest Wing Chun group in the world. Actually, most people often used Wing Chun and Wing Tsun at the same time. There was no difference between them.

    The figures of Wing Chun

    When it comes to the origin of Wing Chun, there existed several different sayings.

    There was no confirmation about the origin of Wing Chun. As Ye Wen said, Liang Bochou married Yan Yongchun in Yun Nan province and then he learned Wing Chun from his wife.

    The successive history of Wing Chun was following: Wu Mei Shi Tai taught to Yan Yongchun, then Yan taught his husband, next her husband taught Liang Langui, then he taught Huang Huabao, after that there appeared clear records about its development as well as successive history. Liang Huabao taught Liang Erti, Liang Erti taught Liang Zan, then Liang Zan taught Chen Huashun, Chen Huashun taught Ye Wen, next followed by Liang Ting who spread Wing Chun all over the world.

    Wu Mei Shi Tai, was one of the five masters in Shaolin Temple. Chen Wenwei set fire on Shaolin Temple for sake of his own benefits, then the five masters had to leave the Shaolin Temple. In the course of escape, Wu Mei Shi Tai saw fierce fighting between a fox and a white crane. A brilliant idea flashed her mind. From animals’ fighting, she thought how to find the quickest way to defend against enemies. Then Wing Chun came into being.

    Wing Chun Wing Chun

    The initial creator Yan Yongchun was married to salt merchant Liang Boqiu. And then she taught this kind of Quan to his husband. Then her husband taught it to Liang Langui. One day, Ling Langui asked him what name of the kind of Quan was. Liang Boqiu didn’t know what name it was, either. He only said that it was a kind of Quan of Yong Chun. Next, Liang Langui taught it to Huang Huabao and told him it was exactly Yong Chun Quan. After a period of time, this kind of Quan was named Wing Chun.

    Huang Huabao was retired when he was 60 years old. Then he was lived in Qingyun street of Kuaizi city in Foshan. There was a very famous doctor named Liang Zan who was a great master in traditional Chinese medicine. He was kind to his patients and tried his best to save the dying people. Therefore, the local people respected him and named him Mr Zan. While Mr Zan made good friends with Liang Huabao. Mr Liang was very relaxed because of his retirement, so he spent much his time in chatting and drinking with Mr Zan. Later on, he talked Wing Chun to Mr Zan and taught it to him.

  • Chinese Kung Fu

    1.Introduction of Chinese Kung fu  

    Kung fu, a kind of Chinese traditional WuShu, with a very long history, which can date back the period of Xia and Shang dynasties. Kung fu is produced and accumulated by numerous Chinese continuous labor practices, having a large mass foundation, which is considered as one of the most valuable Chinese cultural heritages.

    Kung fu Kung fu

    Contents of Kung fu

    1. Origin of Kung fu

    2.Classification of schools

    (1)Difference of features

    (2)Distinguished teachers

    3.History of boxing form

    (1)Forefather of boxing form

    (2)Situations before Song dynasty

    (3)The period of Song dynasty

    (4)The period of Yuan dynasty

    (5)The period of Ming dynasty

    (6)The period of Qing dynasty

    (7)The period of late Qing dynasty

    (8)The period of Republic of China

    (9)Modern and contemporary history

    4. Three systems of Kung fu

    5. The function of Boxing skills

    6. Training of Kung fu

    (1)Internal work

    (2)External work

    (3)Routines of Kung fu

    (4)Equipment of Kung fu

    7.Cultural connotations

    (1)Spirits of Kung fu

    (2)Culture of Kung fu

    8. Characteristics of Kung fu

    (1)Shape a healthy body

    (2)Art performances

    9.  Official agencies

    10.   Actors of Kung fu

    2.Origin of Kung fu

     功夫4

    (1).Kung fu is a vital part of Chinese traditional culture, which is one of the main contents of Chinese  national sports. It is a good means of keeping healthy and self-defense for Chinese people in a period of several thousand years. That is the reason why it is called Kung fu. In the earlytimes of the republic of China, it was referred to as Guo Shu (later it was adopted formally); it is regarded as the quintessence of Chinese Han culture.

    Owing to different history development as well as regional distribution, Kung fu is developed into several different schools. The contents of Kung fu include boxing skills, fighting skills, offensive and defensive strategies and the usage of Wushu. Among them its divided into two categories, one is theory knowledge, the other is real practice. It has several major functions such as shaping a fit body and cultivating spirits of Kung fu from some real practices; While weve also got some precious experiences and boxing records from theory knowledge.The styles of Kung fu have its routine, confrontation and so on. Hence, it reflects Chinese people have a good understanding of offensive and defensive boxing skills and its strategies. Added accumulation of practical experiences, the aim of Kung fu is learning independence,striving to self-improvement and keeping fit. The routine of Kung fu include boxing form, swords, arrows and sticks,ect.

    功夫2

    When you practice these routines, it is essential to perform beautifully, you have to bring every body gesture to the best. Kung fu represents Chinas special culture characteristics, and exploratory meaning towards life, filled with extraordinary connotation of philosophy. In a word, it has a profound influence on Chinas public culture.

    The origin of Kung fu can date back to Chinese primitive society. At that time, people fought with wild animals with sticks or other simple tools, accumulating some offensive and defensive experiences from these fights. In the period of Shang dynasty, hunting in the fields was considered as an important method of training of Wushu.

    (2). In the period of Shang and Zhou dynasties, they made use of “material arts”(a kind of form of Wu shu)to train their soldiers, to encourage the morale of the troops. Interestingly, this kind of material arts was performed just like “dancing”. In Zhou dynasty, they set up a sort of agency called “Xu”. “Xu” added shooting and practicing material arts into the outline of education. The spring and autumn period and the warring states period, many ducal states paid much attention to the fighting skills and their usage in the battles. The duke Qi( a very famous leader in that time) held two tryouts in Spring and Autumn to select able and outstanding heroes. At that time, the production of swords and swordsmanship got unprecedented development. In the period of Qin and Han dynasties, wrestling and fencing was prevalent among people. At  that time, it was a kind of tradition that people performed material arts in some big parties. The Hongmen Banquet(a historical allusion in China) was well-known for the “Xiang Zhuang showing the performance of sword”, the form of which was more similar to the routines of today’s Wushu. In Han dynasty, the usage of marksmanship has reached to the perk of its development, all kinds of marksmanship started to appear. It is said that Huatuo(a famous Chinese doctor) initially created “Wu qinxi”(a kind of routine of material arts to keep healthy),which was regarded as the original source of today’s Wushu.

    It is commonly considered that material arts was derived from the need of battles. However, in the book Chinese material arts---history and culture indicated that material arts was partially resulted from military demand, but actually to a large degree it was derived from private fights in the folk. There existed many differences between these two forms of material arts

    3.Bruce Lee spread Chinese Kung fu all over the world

    功夫4

    It is well-known that Chinese Kung fu has been spread abroad since the era of Bruce Lee. Most westerners started to learn about Chinese culture from Bruce Lee himself. Nowadays, Bruce Lee has become a Kung fu idol, Chinese culture icon as well as a spiritual pillar in people’s eyes. His legendary life has become a classical example in the process of communication of cross-culture. Bruce Lee was a superstar and material arts master at that time. He once had three big dreams in his life: spreading Kung fu throughout the world, bringing Chinese films into international market, and creating a new kind of Kung fu by himself. In modern times, westerners know and understand Chinese Kung fu and films mostly via Bruce Lee. As an outstanding material arts master, Bruce Lee almost devoted his whole life to research and carry forward Chinese Kung fu.

    At a very young age, he started to learn Tai Chi Quan from his father Li Haiquan. Later he became a student of a professional material arts teacher called Liang Zipeng, who was famous for his Nei- family boxing. At the same time, he also learned Wing Chun under the guidance of  the distinguished leading figure Ye Wen in Hong Kong. Then he learned Jie Quan from a famous  teacher Shao Hansheng, and mastered a good method of muscle training with the help of a well-known material arts teacher Yan Jinghai. Next he learned "Wave" Ken stream karate from Ed Parker, “the father of American karate”. He studied jiu-jitsu under the leadership of Kenny Labarre, who was regarded as “the father of jiu-jitsu”. He learned Tae kwon do from “the father of American Tae kwon do” Li Junjiu, then “the king of stick” Dan Iushando in Philippines taught Bruce Lee to study his national material arts.......

    功夫3

    Bruce Lee spent many hours training Chinese Kung fu and researching foreign boxing skills every day. He actively accepted all different kinds of boxing forms and initially created his own Kung fu style --Jeet Kune Do. Undoubtedly, he made much progress from these extraordinary boxing skills. He set up a material arts museum in America to teach foreigners learn Wing Chun and Jeet Kune Do. Bruce Lee also delivered many speeches to express his understanding towards Chinese Kung fu. At the same time, he communicated with many outstanding material arts masters from all over the world. These valuable training skills and experiences were quite helpful to his books about Kung fu. For example, Jeet Kune Do, the study of Jeet Kune Do, the records about Kung futhe two section stick, the illustration of boxing skills of Bruce Lee as well as The fighting skills of Bruce Lee. These are very important books illustrating Chinese Kung fu in details. Therefore, Bruce Lee made a great contribution to the worldwide transmission and communication of Chinese kung fu. Bruce Lee was awarded as “the king of Kung Fu”, “ the winner of material arts”, and “the efficient man carrying forward Chinese Kung fu”.

    It was a pity that Bruce Lee only joined and produced nearly 20 films about Kung fu.

    While he successfully achieved one of his dreams bringing Chinese films into international market. More and more people got to know what Chinese kung fu is and how to learn Chinese Kung fu,ect. Bruce Lee came into fame after his extraordinary Kung fu performance in the TV serials,The Green HornetLater on, he was the leading role in the films of the big bossFists of Fury, Enter the dragon, The way of the dragon, and Game of death , which were quite popular in foreign countries. Most Kung fu amateurs expressed their big interest in Chinese Kung fu. Obviously, Chinese Kung fu was well- known in the global world. The new word “Kung fu” started to appear in many authoritative foreign dictionaries, and Bruce Lee became “The first worldwide Chinese superstar of Kung fu”.

    Then he was awarded as one of the ten big stars in Hong Kong in 1972. In 1993, Bruce Leecommemoratory badge was decorated on the celebrity main street in Hollywood. In 1998, The Association of Chinese Material Arts thought highly of Bruce Lee and awarded him for “the superstar of international material arts”. In 2005, he got the credit for Bruce Lee great contributions to Chinese films stepping into globalization. Therefore, he was nominated as one of the 100 splendid actors of 100 years in history. And he got the prize of Great contributions to Cross-culture Communication. In 2007, he was chosen as one of the 50 film stars on Total Film magazine in Britain.

    4.Classification of schools

    There are many schools of Kung fu in China, which is a rare phenomenon in the world. Kung fu has a long history and fully developed in China. At present, it is calculated that there are more than 300 boxing forms which have clear development history, and special styles. Many different schools are resulted from different geography, climate and population factors based on Chinese PE history of Guo Xifen. People in the north are tall and strong, and the climate is very cold, causing their boxing form strong and powerful; while the boxing form in the south is exquisite and comparatively gentle because of there people short and slim. There is a proverb of “south fists, north legs”. Of course, this is not absolute. For example, Eight Diagrams Palm originated in the north rarely use legs to attack others. There are a range of different forms of Kung fu in China, but they don’t have a uniform name. Some named based on regions(Xin Yi Quan in He Nan province), some are named by famous hills or rivers(Wu Dang sect), some are named according to their initial creators or masters(Yang Shi Tai Chi Quan).......In the past, these schools were simply divided into two categories of Internal and External.

    In 1949, The Communist Party of China became the ruling party, the formal teaching method  咏春拳

    Kung fu was stopped. Only some material arts were used for keeping healthy as well as showing performance in some junior and senior schools. Since the Opening and Reform, Kung fu is divided into the routine(Tao Lu) and boxing&fighting skills based on their contents in general.

    5.Well-known practitioners throughout history

    Bruce Lee was a Chinese American martial artist and actor who was considered an important icon in the 20th century.He practiced Wing Chun and made it famous. Using Wing Chun as his base and learning from the influences of other martial arts his experience exposed him to, he later developed his own martial arts philosophy that evolved into what is now called Jeet Kune Do.

    Zhao Xinzhou, he created Liu He Quan, mantis hand, and Liu He Men.

    Huo Yuanjia was the founder of  Chin Woo Athletic Association who was known for his highly publicized matches with foreigners. His biography was recently portrayed in the movie Fearless.

    Wong Fei Hong was considered a Chinese folk hero during the Republican period. More than one hundred Hong Kong movies were made about his life. Sammo Hung, Jackie Chan, and Jet Li have all portrayed his character in blockbuster pictures.

    Yip Man was a master of the Wing Chunand the first to teach this style openly. Yip Man was the teacher of Bruce Lee. Most major branches of Wing Chun taught in the West today were developed and promoted by students of Yip Man.

    li2

    Jackie Chan is a Chinese martial artist and actor widely known for injecting physical comedy into his martial arts performances, and for performing complex stunts in many of his films.

    Jet Li is the five-time sport wushu champion of China, later demonstrating his skills in cinema.

    Donnie Yen is a Hong Kong actor, martial artist, film director and producer, action choreographer, and world wushu tournament medalist.

    Wu jing is a Hong Kong actor director, martial artist. He was a member of the Beijing wushu team. He started his career as action choreographer and later as an actor.

    6. The history of boxing form(Quan Shu)

    The ancestors of boxing form

    Hong Quan was initially originated from Shan Xi and Gan Su provinces. In Tang dynasty, it was transmitted into Shao Lin Temple in Song Shan hill in He Nan province. In the early times of the republic of China, it was attributed to the system of Shao Lin Quan and started to respectfully name dharma as the father of Shao Lin Kung fu. In the late Ming dynasty, Shao Lin Quan in north areas included Chang Quan, Liu He Quan, Luo Han Quan, Hou Quan, Xin Yi Quan, Tang Lang Quan and Tong Bei Quan,ect. All of them were categorized into Bei Shao Lin Quan and dharma was the father of this school. In the south areas, the Nan Shao Lin Quan included Chang Quan, Duan Da, Wu Quan, Hong Quan, Wing Chun, Bai He Quan and Cai Li Fo, the father of which was Shao Lin Wu Lao. Chang Quan was fully developed in North Song dynasty, some people called it as Tai Zu Chang Quan, initially created by Yue Fei and Song Taizu. Nan Quan, Hua Quan and Wu Quan were started in mid of Ming dynasty and fully developed in the late Qing dynasty. Internal was also fully developed in Qing dynasty, such as Tai Chi Quan, Ba Gua Zhang and Xing Yi Quan,ect. Repectfully name Zhang Sanfeng as the father. In the early times of the republic of China, it was reversed as Wu Dang sect.

    7. Before Song dynasty

    Shan Xi Hong Quan

    At that time, it is said that boxing and fighting skills appeared in military training. Hong Quan could date back to the Zhou and Qin dynasty. “Wuwu” as well as “Jue Li” were prevalent in the capital of Xi Zhou. “fighting by hands”

    and “fencing” were even more popular in Chang An, the capital of Tang dynasty. All of them were mostly for entertainment, but on the other hand, this kind of training helped a lot in improving skills.(The History of Chinese Kung Fu). The book of Shi Ji once recorded that soldiers jumped and danced at the party to celebrate the empire Qin’s victory of a big battle. It is said that the style of jumping and dancing at that party was the same as the routine of Chinese Kung fu, which was also similar to the style of Hong Quan in the folk. “Ji Bo Fu Bi”(people fighting by hands and shaking by legs) showed Qin people were wild and strong. Hong Quan experienced thousands of years of winds and rains, which was well-known for its richful developing history, a variety of routines, and comprehensive skills in Wu Lin. Hong Quan was also widespread in other areas, such as He Nan province, Gan Su province, Si Chuan province, Yun Nan province, Shan Xi province and Shang Dong province. Hong Quan was very popular in guanzhong region of Shan Xi province (the middle areas of China)in Qin dynasty, mainly because its capital Xian Yang was built in this region. In Song dynasty, it turned its original name into Tai Zu Hong Quan.

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    The book of Shao Lin Quan told us a famous story, in the late times of Song dynasty, a person named Jue Yuan visited the old man Li at the foot of the mountain Bai Yu Feng. He learned Hong Quan of all its forms hardly from the old man. Then he brought what he learned into Shao Lin temple, at that time , Hong Quan was rapidly developed. Obviously, Hong Quan was originated in Guanzhong region, later on popular in the whole country. There were many records about Shao Lin’ monks training Hong Quan in Tang dynasty. In AD 702, under the reign of the queen Wu Zetian, Wu regime system was set up to select soldiers who were talented in military fields. They adopted a practical way---Kung Fu test, to decide whether you were outstanding and competent or not. To some extent, the way greatly facilitated the development of Kung fu. Up to until the late times of Qing dynasty, the test was abolished. In the process of turnover and replacement of different dynasties, Kung fu has greatly improved and developed into a sort of cultural symbol. In the meantime, different schools of Kung fu appeared and fully developed. Most of them had a profound influence on southeastern nations.

    8.In Song dynasty

    Chang Quan in Hangzhou province

    At the very beginning of the North Song dynasty, the empire ordered that ordinary people should be forbidden to set up some groups or organizations and secretly hid some weapons. In AD 1127, Songs palace had to move to the southern areas in terms of disadvantaged war situations. Under the leadership of patriotic generals Yue Fei and Han Shizhong, a large number of soldiers trained very hard to improve their skills of Kung fu. Hangzhou as the cradle of Chang Quan, whose forms concentrated more on the upper bodys movements and seldom jumped to leave the ground. It is said that the ancestors of Xin Yi Liu He Quan had a very valuable book named The Secret Boxing skills of the General of Yue Wu . In AD 1156, the court set up the course of Kung fu in Lin An, the capital of The North Song. In AD1180, the empire allowed young and strong people to join the party on the condition that they could pass the system of Wu Shus imperial examinations. Since then, those ordinary people of learning Kung fu had access to the upper class if they were talented in Kung fu. In the period of The North Song dynasty, there appeared 27 material arts masters in total. At that time, there were a great number of groups of material arts such as Jin Biao group, Ying Lue group, and Ma group. Besides, many private groups formed and developed in the folk. After the northern areas were occupied by the the minority Jin, a large number of refugees flooded into the Hangzhou province, in the meantime, they also introduced their northern boxing forms and mixed them with the southern ones. Many people who had a good command of material arts had to make a living everywhere in performing Kung fu. In a word, Chang Quan was forming and developing in the period of the Song dynasty.

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    9.The Yuan dynasty

    In the history of China, it is well-known that the Yuan dynasty was controlled by the northern minority----the Mongol nationality. At that time, the Han nationality was considered as the lowest class. These people were not allowed to train Kung fu or establish some groups related to Kung fu. Based on the the newspapers of Tian Duo in the late times of Qin dynasty, Lu Weichang, a man from Guang Dong province, whose book named Shao Lin Patriarchal utilized fake history of Shao Lin to propagandize the campaigns against Qin dynasty said that the boxing forms of Shao Lin have not been recongnized by most people at the late times of Song dynasty and the beginning of Yuan dynasty. It is said that Jue Yuan learned the the training methods for the eighteen disciples of the Buddha from Dharma. Then he improved what he learned to more and simpler styles(Hua Quan). While Jue Yuan was still unsatisfied with what he achieved, he traveled everywhere to obtain more skills or experiences from some material arts masters.Fortunately, he got Li jia Quan, Bai mo Quan, as well as Cai jia Quan. In the end, he mixed the five kind of boxing forms and added into the Southern Shao Lin Quan Fa, which had about 170 boxing forms in total, including famous Wu Xing and Ba Gua Quan. At the same time, Jue Yuan put much emphasis on the moral regulations of Kung fu---that is the morality of material arts. He set ten big disciplines to regulate Shao Lin monks behaviors. Those above stories were all from history records. 

    10. The Ming dynasty

    Nan Quan in Fu Jian province  Mei Hua Quan in Si Chuan province

    H2

    In the period of Ming dynasty, the capital was moved to Beijing. Chang Quan and Hong Quan were also taken to the northern areas. Mixed with those local material arts such as eighteen hands and Liu He, they have been considered as several forms of Shao Lin Quan since then.

    Qi Jiguang(a very famous general in China) once made a list of schools of Chinese material arts. There were Chang Quan, Hong Quan, and Bazi Quan,ect. Obviously, at that time, Shao Lin sect and Wu Dang sect have not been recognized by most people. In the early times of the Republic of China, Chinese Kung fu was divided into different schools. Symbolically, they are generally referred to as the Southern Shao Lin.

    Qi Jiguang learned Chang Quan at an very young age from his grandfathers as well as his fathers. He now was regarded as the master of Chang Quan. In the period of Ming dynasty, Ming was once invaded and occupied by Japanese. Qi Jiguang was an outstanding general to lead Chinese people fighting against invaders. Their army stationed at eastern coastal areas, during that time, Chang Quan and Wu Quan, Hua Quan and other material arts were widespread in coastal areas. Wu Xing Quan and He Quan were formed at that time in Fu Jian province. Hong Quan and Wing Chun were formed in Guang Xi and Guang Dong provinces. In Ming dynasty, there appeared External created by Zhang Jiaxi. Many boxing forms with unique features started to form and develop in Ming dynasty. Chang Quan later was developed into Tai- Chi Quan, Hong Quan and Hua Quan evoluted into Xin Yi Liu He Quan. Wu Quan was developed into Wu Xing Hong Quan. Chazi Quan and Bazi Quan evoluted into Tang Lang Quan.

    11.The Qin dynasty

    In the early times of Qing dynasty, people were not allowed to get together to train Kung fu or any other forms of material arts. The South Shao Lin Temple didn’t exist any more. And another Shao Lin Temple in Song Shan was also watched by upper class. Monks there were forbidden to practice Kung fu.

    (1) Fo Shan in Guang Dong---South Shao lin---Hong Quan、Wing Chun

    In the late times of Ming dynasty and early times of Qin dynasty, Wu Quan(five kinds of boxing forms) in southern areas were developed into Wu Xing Quan--one of Hong Quan. While nowadays people called them The South Shao Lin, which was very popular in Fu Jian and Guang Dong provinces. Actually it was originated from Fu Jian province, on the list of boxing forms in southern areas once made by Qi Jiguang---the well-known general. At that time, it was their obligations for those material arts masters to make sure the safety of sea salt carrying into the western provinces or the overseas goods delivering to the northern areas.

    (2) Quan Shu in Chen Jia ditch( a village)---Chen-Tai Chi quan

    Chen Wangting, once an official working in Qin government. When he retired and was back to his hometown, he put those Taoist theory into the practice of all forms of Quan Shu including Chang Quan, Pao Quan and Hong Quan. In the meantime, he expressed it was a useful way to shape a healthy body, then making every efforts to spread his Chen-style in Chen Jia Gou.

    At the beginning of Qing dynasty, the security of those goods delivery must be guaranteed, so it was essential to ask guards (most had a good command of material arts)for help. Owing to those Han Chinese were forbidden to train Kung fu together, thus leading people living in Hui nationality regions likely to train material arts. Cang Zhou in He Bei province was the main road to deliver those goods into Beijing. And Liu He Quan and Luo Han Quan were prevalent there. Zha Zi Quan and Cha Quan created by those Hui Chinese were also very popular and then were added into local boxing forms. In the period of Qing dynasty, grain transportation, and shipping were at booming times, which was the real reason why bodyguards were prevalent at that time.

    Ji Jike(1602-1683) taught Liu He Quan, including ten kinds of forms in total, later was developed into Xin Yi Quan and Xin Yi Liu He Quan,ect. Nowadays, people called it as The North Shao Lin.

    Internal was firstly recorded in the book of Epitaph of Wang Zhengnan

    p3 in 1669.

    12.In the late times of Qing dynasty

    After the Opium War(1840)

    At first, Lin Zexu and Deng Tingzheng, two famous government officials in Guang Dong province, strictly ban local people to abuse drugs with the help of local organizations and material arts groups. In order to forbid the British Army accessing to the San Jiang waters in eastern Guang Dong province, they made great efforts to well develop militias in the folk. Those people were required to train based on the routines of Kung fu. However, later on, government didnt allow to gather a lot of people training Kung fu. Those groups were unfortunately dismissed or loosely managed. Until one day, Zeng Guopan, a distinguished Han Chinese official who was serving for the Qing government, established his own military army called Xiang Jun, giving material arts a rebirth of life.

    Chen Changxin, spread Yang-Tai Chi nationwide, in the meantime, he simplified its Tao Lu( a kind of routine of Kung fu), and put much emphasis on the combination of hardness and softness. 

    In 1851, The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was formally established, subsequently in 1853 it situated its capital in Tian Jing (now is the Nan Jin province). At that time, material arts groups rapidly developed in southern areas such as in big cities Guang Zhou and Fo Shan, which provided plenty of human resources for development of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. The leaders of those material arts groups were in attempt to avoid being given away and produced a bad affect on their families, so they hide their own real identities and used fake names. They called on the mass to fight against the Qing’s feudal regime in the name of The South Shao Lin. In the process of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement, Hong Quan had chance to be spread from Guang dong province to Nan Jing province( that is it spread from southern areas to eastern areas).

    Lin Zexu was forcely dismissed by The Qing Government in 1845 because of his aggressively dealing with the opium and drugs from British invaders. Chen Xiang, a famous material arts master, once actively taking part in the event of Burning of Opium Stocks in Humen Beach fighting with those British invaders. In 1845, he went back to his hometown Mei Xi village in Xin Hui of Guang Dong province and established about 44 material arts schools to teach more Chinese people to learn Kung fu(including Hua Quan, Pin Quan, Wu Xing Quan and Ba Gua Zhang,ect.) in defense of Chinese territory.

    In 1852, Huang Huabao, a material arts master, taught what he had learnt to Liang Zan in Fo Shan city. He put much emphasis on the softness as well as toughness in skills of The Nan Shao Lin Quan. Wing Chun formed subsequently. And “Wu Mei Senior Nun” of the Nan Shao Lin Temple was considered as the first generation master.

    In 1852, the name of Tai Chi Quan was firstly appeared in people’s eyes. At that time, it only had eight Gua, five hang and thirteen styles. We can obtain more information about Tai Chi from the book The introduction of Tai Chi Quan written by Wang Zongyuan in the period of Qing dynasty.

    m1

    After 1956, the retired eunuch Dong Haichuan(1797-1882) established his own material arts school in Beijing to teach Ba Guazhang.

    All in all, a large number of outstanding material arts masters played an important part in overturning the Qing regime, furthermore, what they did made great contributions to the further development of Chinese Kung fu.

    After the failure of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement(1864)

    Hong Quan as well as Hua Quan and Ba Gua Quan(that is The Nan Shao lin Quan in the times of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement) were spread into the areas of Nan Jing, Zhe Jiang and Jiang Su provinces.

    Huang Qiying, the initial creator of Hong Quan in Guang Dong province taught it to Huang Feihong(1847-1924), a very famous master of Kung fu. Zhi Shan Zen Master, from the South Shao Lin Temple, was respectfully referred as to the first generation master of Hong Quan.

    Zhang Yan took over the Fo Shan Hongsheng material arts center in 1876, mainly teaching Cai Li Fo Quan there. In Qing dynasty, local areas were mostly at unrest situations, so many wealthy people were willing to hire those men who have a good command of kung fu in defense of their safety and property security.

    Especially at the late times of Qing dynasty, the Qing regime was unstable. Many ambitious people established material arts groups and called in a lot of masters of Kung fu.

    In the middle times of Qing dynasty, Kung fu was also divided into two parts, nei and wai. Nei is related to Qi. The concept of qi is encountered in a number of Chinese martial arts. Qi is variously defined as an inner energy or "life force" that is said to animate living beings. There are many ideas regarding the control of one's qi energy to such an extent that it can be used for healing oneself or others. Some styles believe in focusing qi into a single point when attacking and aim at specific areas of the human body. Such techniques are known as dim mak and have principles that are similar to acupressur. And wai means training external physical body and shaping strong bones and muscles. Besides, it also had different theories from The Taoist and The Buddhist. Furthermore, it had a clear distinction of “south fists and north legs”.

    In 1899, Yi He Quan and Tang Lang Quan started to form in Shang Dong province. Fan Xidong wrote the book Real Skills of Shao Lin on the basis of the book Luo Han Duan Da of the taoist Shengxiao and his own training experiences. The contents were involved in The Eighteen skills and The summary of Tang Lang Quan,ect.

    It is said that the book of Real Skills of Shao Lin was related to how the taoist shengxiao learned Kung fu from Fu Ju Zen master in Shao Lin Temple and later learned it from some well-known monk in the Mountain Jun Shan.

     

    13. Jin Quan----had secret connections with some religious organizations

    In the northern areas, The Write Lotus in Shang Dong province and its branches had closely associations with those religious organizations, including Qi Xing Hong Quan, Yi He Quan, and Ba Fan Quan.

    Mei Hua Quan in Si Chuang province, and we could find the evidence on the records of The Chu Lotus.

    Fu Quan and Ba Gua Quan in Shang Dong province, which was prevalent in The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement.

    14. In the late times of Qing dynasty and early times of The Republic of China

    The name of Wu Dang Sect started to appear.

    Wu Dang sect and External were the local material arts in the nearby areas of Tian Jing and Beijng provinces. Later on, mixed with Hong Quan and Pao Quan as well as Chang Quan, it evolved into another kind of style--Tai Chi Quan, Ba Gua Zhang and Xing Yi Quan, ect.

    It is said that Wu Dang sect was initially created by Zhang Sanfeng in Song dynasty. Furthermore, it progressively formed different branches in the development period of Wu Dang sect. Shao Lin sect started to appear. At that time, revolutionary Party utilized its history to evoke the angry mood of anti- Qing regime among the masses.

    X9

    15.Xuan Tong period 03

    In 1911, the newspaper of Tian Duo in Shanghai published some articles about Shao Lin Kung fu. All of these articles were written by Cheng Tiesheng and his partners, from Guang Dong province. The contents of these articles were mainly related to the history development of The South Shao Lin, however, unfortunately, it was difficult to find evidences to prove the authenticity of the backgrounds and those places depicted in articles. And they only recorded the information of Hong Quan.

    The North Shao Lin, which meant a kind of quan shu from Cang Zhou, He Bei province, including Liu He, Tang Lang,and Luo Han Quan. It mainly demanded learners of holding the breath and tightening their muscles when standing. It is a good way to shape a perfect abdominal muscle.

    The South Shao Lin, referring to as Nan Quan, which mainly focuses on boxing skills. It don’t require that tight muscles compared with the South Shao Lin. It focuses more on a combination of hardness and softness.

    Some quan shu like Gang Quan was full of power, subsequently, added into the element of softness. The most symbolic one was Wing Chun. The combination of hardness and softness was obviously a significant improvement of Kung fu moving to a higher level.

    kung fu kung fu

    At the early times of The Republic of China, the society was comparatively stable, and the economy was faced with an important transformation. In the meantime, a large number of safeguards and Tuan lian ( a kind of folk force) were allowed to learn material arts, resulting in the formation of many schools of Kung fu.

    It is said that there was nobody to record the development history of Wu Dang Set , so up until now, people didn’t have a clear understanding of how it formed and developed.

    At the very beginning of The Republic of China, Xu Yusheng, the Inheritance people of Tai Chi--Wu style, said that Song Shuming who once worked for Yuan Shikai (a distinguished figure at that time) collected the the Tai-Chi books of Song Yuanqiao(one of the initial creators of Tai-Chi quan). It is said that zhang Sanfeng taught Zhang Songxi and Zhang Cuishan, then they taught it to Song Yuanqiao. The Tai-Chi quan was named Shi San Shi(thirteen styles).

    The sort of material art, which was taught in Qing military troops, was exactly what was taught in the new troops of Yuan Shikai, later on it was succeeded by Lineal warlord.

    16.The Southern Shao Lin Temple 

    There is no any records about the inherited history of Song Shan Shao Lin Temple.

    At the fourth year of The Republic of China, Zhong Hua Book Company published the book The Secret of Shao Lin Quan. The content was similar to a Wu Shu story. However, many anecdotes about Shao Lin Temple we talked now almost came from this book, followed by a great deal of legend stories of Shao Lin. For example, the legend of the Southern Shao Lin Temple and The Shao Lin Temple was on fire.

    The Secret of Shao Lin Quan recorded that Shao Lin was initial creator of the South sect. Dharma was once living in the temple,he felt that his disciples looked not very healthy, so he decided to invent a sort of material art to keep fit. That is Shi Ba Shou. The styles were not difficult to learn but effective for shaping a strong body. It was also called The Eighteen Arhats Hand. This sort of material art remained as it was for about several hundred years. When Jue yuan Shang Ren Converted to buddhist, The Eighteen Arhats Hand was then developed into 72 different styles.

    In 1928, The Song Shan Shao Lin Temple was burnt out by the warlords. In 1926, the kuomintang started the Northern Expedition. On 6th March, 1927, the presider of the Shao Lin Temple, the monk Miao Xin, joined the Northern Warlords, then died in Wu yang, only 37 years old. After 1928, somebody said that he got the secret of the 72 styles. In 2000, Wu Zhongxian published 72 styles of The Shao Lin Temple and 36 skills of Wu Dang sect.

    In 1909, Kung fu group was established in the folk. Beginning from Huo yuanjia setting up the first Kung fu group(Jing Wu Hui) in Shanghai, a series of similar Kung fu groups were established one by one in FoShan, Hankou, Guangzhou, Wuzhou, Nanning and other areas. At the same time, it had a profound influence on Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam. The overseas Chinese there set up branches of those groups actively. The aim of Jing Wu Hui was advocating Kung fu, studying gymnast, nourishing strong people.

    The Sports Research Agency in Beijing, was established by Xu Yusheng, Yang Jizi and other partners. It aimed at developing material arts, nourishing talents and rescuing our country.

    17.Chinese Warrior Society

    kung fu kung fu

    In 1911, Chinese Warrior Society was set up under the advocation of the United League of China. It aimed at uniting the people who learned Kung fu, improving Chinese Kung fu, inspiring Chinese people. At the autumn of 1912, they held a great Kung fu performance at the parks in Tianjin and Hebei. The National Government advocated that people ought to practice Kung fu for a healthy body. Therefore, all schools were demanded to add a course of Kung fu. Since then, sport activities were blended into people’s daily life. At the very beginning of The Republic of China, appeared many Wu Shu schools in southern areas, the Guang Dong Nan Quan was said to originate from The Shao Lin Temple and E Mei sect. Actually it exposed its “new”. But its purpose was indicating that it came from orthodox Kung fu. In essence, it mixed with several masters’ Kung fu features. The book named Wan Nianqin about Zhi Shan, one of the five famous masters,was prevalent in material arts novels of Guang Dong during the period of Cixi. It could be bought in the folk. At the late time of Qing dynasty, the material arts novel Wan Nianqin, was very famous at those places of Guang zhou and Fo Shan. At that time, the local material arts called Wing Chun(Wumei was its master) was also well-known by people. Hong Quan and Hua Hong Quan (now refer to as The Shao Lin Wing Chun Quan) as well as Cai Li Fo(Zhi Shan was it master);Hua Quan(MiaoXian was it master); Dong Jiang Quan( Bai Mei Dao Ren was its master). The novel perhaps was created based on the developing materials of the above schools of Kung fu and some anecdotes in the folk. During the Period of dynasty transformation, many former generals would teach material arts in the folk, living a quiet and low-key life. At the old times, people who learned Kung fu, all chose the outstanding masters. However, nowadays, people mainly chose to learn based on different schools of Kung fu.

    18The central material arts museum and other aspects

    At the early times of the Republic of China, it advocated “ strengthening our country and race”. At that time, material arts was encouraged and widely promoted.

    In 1927, the national government set up the central material arts museum in Nan Jing in order to further manage fragmented and strong material arts groups. And it also established an audit committee, of which Tang Fansheng was the first director. Tang stressed emphasis on the history of material arts, so he didn’t come to terms with those rich and powerful men. At last, he chose to leave there. The central material arts was managed by some military veterans such as Li Jinglin, Zhang Zhijiang and Du Xinwu,ect. They invited the masters of different schools of material arts to teach in the museum. They divided Chinese Kung fu into two major parts, one was Shaolin, the other one was Wu Dang set. Then we can divided them in more details. At that moment, Wan Naisheng( the student of Du Xinwu) said he belonged to Zi Ranmen of E Men sect.

    Since then, the eight sects once only seen on material arts novels have started to come into sight, each had its own origin and development history.

    In December,1927, the general Zhang Zhijiang set up the material arts research institute with the help of the famous educator Cai Yuanpei( the president of Peking University). It aimed at advocating the slogans of “strengthening and saving our country” and “defending invaders and developing a strong country”. In order to carry forward our Kung fu, the Nan Jing government and local military forces required soldiers to learn material arts and it was designated as a major course on the training list. Therefore, the society set off a booming wave of learning material arts. A large number of museums and material arts groups were progressively established throughout country.

    In history, Japan’s purpose of invading Chinese territory was gradually obvious, Yue Fei( a famous general in Nan Song dynasty who fought against the minority Jin) and Zhu YuanZhang (the first empire of the Ming dynasty) were both considered as the national heroes. Subsequently, it appeared many secret scripts of material arts, in which Yue Fei, Zhu Yuanzhang and Qi Jiguang were called big heroes against invaders. All of them had more or less connections with Shaolin Temple. In 1929, Da Sheng press published a book called Quan Jin. Until 1936, Tan Yinglu published a more complete secret script of material arts--The Summary of Quan Jin and Quan methods. After Tang confirmed the reliability of the book, he found it may be the remained material arts method of a Shaolin mook called Xuan Ji.

    In 1929, Zhang Zhijiang and Li Jinglin held material arts meetings at the West Lake Expo. In 1933, the successor of Xing Yi Quan Xue Dian said that he learned Hua Tuo Wu Qin Shu( it was created by a famous doctor Hua Tuo in Chinese history) and acupuncture method from zen master Ling Kong in Wu Tai mountain. He published the Summary of Xing Yi Quan, the Summary of Xiang Xing Quan, and the Secret Acupuncture Method of Zen Master Ling Kong.

    In August, 1936, Chinese material arts delegation took part in the performance contest in Berlin.

    In the period of the two world wars and the Chinese civil war, Chinese Kung fu was at stagnant conditions. Wars stopped material arts to be learned and succeeded. During the course of the Second World War(1937) and the Reform and Opening up(1985), nearly 50 years,Chinese Material arts on Chinese mainland was not well-succeeded, thus resulting in most of valuable contents being severely destroyed or forgotten. Fortunately, some relics were still well-preserved in Tai Wan , Hong Kong and even foreign countries.

    19.At the very beginning of Chinese Liberation

    In 1950, The All-China Sports Federation was officially proposed that Chinese Kung fu was serving as keeping a fit body for Chinese people.

    The Communist Party executed a public system, so it was not allowed to teach Chinese Kung fu in private. Some schools of Chinese Kung fu like Wing Chun which existed a powerful threat to public people were forcibly forbidden. In 1953, the master of Xing Yi Men--Xue Dian was sentenced to death because he led heretics and also delivered some heretic speeches among the public places. Xue Dian improved Xing Yi Quan into Xiang Xing Quan. It is said that Xue once learned from a master Ling Kong in the Wu Tai Mountain. He claimed to be the successor of “Yi Guan Dao”.

    At that time, many masters transferred to act as doctors of traditional Chinese medicine. And some turned to develop in orthopaedic field.

    In 1956, The All- China Sports Federation officially established The Association of Chinese Material Arts. It was designated as a performance program and set up several groups with Chinese special characteristics. The Association of Chinese Material Art was responsible for managing and arranging all people ever learning in these groups. There were 12 units of Chinese material arts in total. The teaching conception of these groups was to put emphasis on that Tao Lu of keeping a healthy body as well as internal works. Just like Tai Chi--Yang style; Shan Wu, Jian Wu( these two were a sort of dance); Mu Lan Quan, ect.

    In 1957, The Association of Chinese Material Arts organized material arts groups in every provinces of China. In 1960, primary schools and junior schools as well as senior high schools throughout China all added Chinese Kung fu to the sports teaching content.

    From the beginning of “The Chinese Cultural Revolution” in 1966, Chinese Kung fu was severely destroyed especially some valuable books of Chinese Kung fu. Some staffs related to Chinese Kung fu were also dismissed. During the course of 1966-1982, the development of Chinese Kung fu was nearly at a stagnant conditions. After the Reform and Opening up, particularly in the period of 1983-1986, The National Sports Committee did a widespread survey about Chinese Kung fu, and restarted to arrange new contents of Kung fu.

    In 1985, China held the first International Chinese Material arts Tournament in Xi An city and also established a semi-official Union Committee. Some local material arts groups were also set up such as the Jing Wu Sports Institute, The Shaolin Temple, The material arts teaching school in the Wu Dang Mountain, and The Chinese material arts Institute of E Mei sect. The eight (or ten) schools of Chinese Kung fu appeared again.

    In 1987, the First Asian Material Arts Tournament was held in Heng Bin city in Japan.

    In 1990, Chinese Kung fu was firstly listed as one of programs in the Eleventh Asian Games.

    In 1990, The International Material Arts Committee became one of members of The   International Sports Federations, which was a significant symbol of Chinese Kung fu stepping towards the Globe.

    20.Chinese Kung fu nowadays on the Chinese continent

    The International sports administration of the People's Republic of China had branches of Material Arts Management Center and China’s Material Arts Research Institute. Chinese Material Arts Association---the nationwide public material arts organization, was also one of the branches of The International sports administration of the People's Republic of China. In general, those sports activities were arranged by those organizations. According to those above organizations, Chinese Kung fu ought to turn to sports activities and physical fitness activities.

    Besides, they set up International Material Arts Federation to promote Chinese Kung fu and they also think Chinese Kung fu ought to become one of competitive activities which had its own routine and style. Most of them agreed to hold some international tournaments to perform Chinese Kung fu special enchantment on one condition that performers were supposed to conform to its routine(Taolu) and style.

    However, later the kind of form was criticized by more people because they thought it looked more like a dance performance without any practical skills than a competitive activity. International Material Arts Federation had 114 member states in total. Since the beginning of the 1980s, Chinese governments tried to promote a series of Sanda movements. To make matters worse, more people criticized Sanda movement was totally not Chinese kung fu. Conversely, it looked more like Tai Quan style and its wrestling style was also different from Chinese Kung fu.

    Besides, they set up International Material Arts Federation to promote Chinese Kung fu and they also think Chinese Kung fu ought to become one of competitive activities which had its own routine and style. Most of them agreed to hold some international tournaments to perform Chinese Kung fu special enchantment on one condition that performers were supposed to conform to its routine(Taolu) and style.

    However, later the kind of form was criticized by more people because they thought it looked more like a dance performance without any practical skills than a competitive activity. International Material Arts Federation had 114 member states in total. Since the beginning of the 1980s, Chinese governments tried to promote a series of Sanda movements. To make matters worse, more people criticized Sanda movement was totally not Chinese kung fu. Conversely, it looked more like Tai Quan style and its wrestling style was also different from Chinese Kung fu.

    21.The schools of Chinese Kung fu

    Distinctive Characteristics

    That Chinese Kung fu had many different schools was a very rare phenomenon in other areas of the world. It was calculated that there were about 300 types of Chinese Kung fu which had clear development history, unique styles and its own system. The Book The History of Chinese Kung fu pointed that the differentiation between the South and the North in geography, climate and population resulted in many different schools of Chinese Kung fu. Tall people and cold climate in north areas caused the North Quan was strong and powerful while comparatively short and medium height people and sufficient water in the south resulted in the South Quan was soft and delicate. As a saying goes south arms and north legs. Of course, it was not absolute. For instance, Ba Guazhang originated from the north seldom used legs and Wing Chun in the south rarely used legs skills. Chinese Kung fu had many schools but it did not have a uniform name. Some were named by regions( Xin Yi Quan in He Nan province), rivers and mountains (Wu Dang sect), as well as its initial creators(Tai Chi--yang style). In the past, those schools were simply divided into External and Internal.

    In 1949, after the Communist party of China became the ruling party, the traditional successive mode and the teaching style in material arts museums were stopped. Only some were allowed to teach in junior and senior schools for keeping fit.

    Since the Reform and Opening up, Chinese Kung fu was classified into Taolu and boxing as well as fighting.

    22.The distinguished masters of Chinese Kung fu

    Bruce Lee (superstar, Jeet Kune Do, Nunchakus), Zhao Xinzhou(Liu He Quan, Liu He Men, Tang Lang Shou), Huo Yuanjia(Mi Zong Quan), Huang Feihong(Hong Quan), Han Qingtang(Chang Quan), Liu Yun Qiang( Bai Ji Quan, Ba Gua Zhang, Liu He Tang Lang Quan), Liu Bai Chuan(Luo Han Quan), Su Heihu( Hei Hu Men), Shao Han Sheng( Cai Li Fo Quan, Hong Quan), He Changhai(Luo Han Quan, Zha Quan), Qu Zheng Qiang(Qi Xing Tang Lang Quan), Li Shu Wen(Ba Ji Quan), Liang Zan, Ye Wen, Liang Ting(Wing Chun), Chen Xiang( Cai Li Fo Quan),Chen Qinghe( Chang Quan, Hong Quan), Jiang Rongqiao(Xing Yi Quan, Ba Gua Zhang), Chen Wangting, Yang Luchan(Tai Chi--Yang style), Zhang Sanfeng(Tai Chi--thirteen styles),Guo Yunsheng(Xing Yi Quan),ect. 

    Chinese kung fu Chinese kung fu

    23. Three systems of Chinese Kung fu

    Chinese Quan Shu was developed into two big systems in the Ming dynasty.

    The system of Chang Quan: Bei Quan, including jumping, Da Che Shen( a kind of movement). Because trainers had to practice those movements over and over again, this kind of Quan was named Chang Quan. Up until the Song dynasty, those movements had fully developed, people who wanted to grasp Chang Quan must train those movements very hard. In the Ming dynasty, Hong Quan, Pao Chui, Hua Quan were added into the system of Chang Quan.

    The system of Xing Yi Quan( the system of Shaolin Quan): ( Hong Quan, Pao Chui, Hua Quan and Chang Quan), after the Ming dynasty, trainers started to learn some gestures from animals when they were hunting for food. Besides, the phenomena of wild wind, lightning, heavy rain in nature also gave them good points about how to develop and enrich the system of Chinese Kung fu. Then north Liu He Quan, Luo Han Duan Da, and south Hong Quan formed and came into people’s sight. The sorts of Quan contained Wu Quan, Hua Quan and north Liu He Quan, ect. At that time, the Nan Quan started to form a comparatively complete training system. New learners must practice muscles and other parts of body as well as know how to hold the breath. It put emphasis on some fundamental skills, such as learning to protect themselves in use of some flexible movements. At the same time, learners had to pay attention to the coordination of hands and other parts of body.

    Chinese kung fu Chinese kung fu

    Until the early times of the Qing dynasty, the system of Chang Quan and the system of the Xing Quan mixed and complemented each other and then they developed into a new system of Yi Quan.

    The system of Yi Quan( a new set of system, a system of External and a new school of Nan Quan): it simplified the style of the system of Xing Quan and at the same time it reduced the complicated movements of the system of Chang Quan. More importantly, it improved some movements that actually did harm to trainers’ health. Different sects started to form. TaiChi which was prevalent in the Qing dynasty, in essence, was originated from the system of Chang Quan and Wu Xing Ba Gua( a kind of theory of Taoism). In the meantime, Xing Yi Quan was derived from a further understanding of Xing Quan. The above three big systems of Quan was exactly the origin of modern sects of Quan.

    Modern sects of Quan included Wing Chun, Da Cheng Quan, Jeet Kune Do, the sect of Wu Dang, and the sect of E Mei.

  • General Introduction of Tai Chi Chuan

    00e93901213fb80ecaef98bf37d12f2eb9389498_副本 Tai Chi Chuan

    Tai Chi Chuan, which is a intangible cultural heritage of China, derives from Chen Village in Honan province of the central China. Famous for its essence of a subtle balance of softness and hardness and its characteristics of being extremely smooth and lithe, it’s a Chinese traditional martial art as well as a combination of practices from different branches, the variation of Yin and Yang in the I Ching, theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine and a unique approach of breathing for the purpose of keeping fit.

     

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    Since the Reform and Opening up in China(1979), it has been classified as Tai Chi Chuan for competing, for gymnastics and the practices of hands. There are a multitude of schools in traditional Tai Chi practices, among which the most common being Chen-style, Yang-style Wu-style and Sun-style. These schools are intimately connected for the reason of heritage and borrowing, yet each of them is able to maintain their uniqueness at the same time. Tai Chi Chuan, with numerous schools and solid mass base, distinguishes itself as a vital branch of Chinese martial art.

    Adopting the theory of Tai Chi and the Yin-Yang in Confucianism and Daoism as fundamental basis, Tai Chi Chuan is a perfect combination of traditional Chinese dialectic, martial art, art and Chinese medicine. It’s among the most profound civilization in its multifunction, namely cultivating character, enhancing physical fitness and self-defensing, As a sport full of traditional philosophy from the Eastern World, its practitioners are able to strengthen their body and mind internally and externally, catering to their physical and psychological needs. In consequence, Tai Chi Chuan plays a significant role in both the healthy development of human beings and the harmonious relationship in the global village.

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    Origin of Tai Chi Chuan

    Originated in Chen Village of Wen County of Jiaozuo City in Honan province, Tai Chi Chuan is a typical example of traditional Chinese art form. Around the mid-1800s, Chen Wangting learned from the merits of other schools of martial art and combined the theories of I Ching and Traditional Chinese Medicine so that on the basis of the practices handed down by his ancestors he created a series of new method charactered as a combination of Yin and Yang, softness and hardness as well as the cultivation of spirit and physics, which he styled as Tai Chi Chuan.

    Tai Chi Chuan was then handed down generations after generations within his family, which then began to spread to the outside world during the period of its 14th generation successor Chen Changxing, giving birth to many schools such as Chen-style, Yang-style Wu-style and Sun-style, etc.

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    As one of the most distinctive and typical philosophies, Tai Chi Chuan is based on the theory of Yin-Yang and conducts movements with mind. Through the repetitive exercise to relax and use mind to generate the vitality to cultivate the body we can enter into a state to be able to play Tai Chi fluently and smoothly thus further reach a even higher level and accomplish the goal of physical and spiritual cultivation, keeping fit and longevity.

    Its fundamental contents include theories of health maintenance, movements, movements of equipment, practices of hands and auxiliary training methods. There are many different patterns of Chuan and equipment consists of dao (a heavier curved saber, sometimes called a broadsword), jian (a straight double-edged sword, practiced as Tai Chi Jian), qiang (a 2m long spear or a 4m long lance), etc.

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    Features of Tai Chi Chuan

    Tai Chi Chuan emphasizes dignity, modesty, continuity and overcoming the hardness with softness. Striking a subtle balance between rapidness and slowness, its practices are as natural as the flowing clouds and running water, which enables practitioners to approach the highest state of the combination of mind, vitality, body and spirit as well as the polish of their characteristics. As a result, they become closer to the nature and hold a more tolerant attitude towards others so as to build a harmonious society. Meanwhile, Tai Chi Chuan attaches attention to improve physical fitness through the combination of hardness and softness.

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    As a priceless treasure of Chinese culture, Tai Chi Chuan has successfully drew the attention of the world. Since 1980s, 11 international conferences have been held, aiming at the exchange of opinions on the practices of Tai Chi Chuan. Successors of different schools are also devoted to pass on this great cultural heritage. In May 2006, it was officially recognized by Chinese government as a national intangible cultural heritage.

    While Tai Chi Chuan has increasingly become a tie to connect different races, ethnic groups and even nations for the purpose of spreading Chinese culture to the world, great Taoists including Zhong Yunlong and Chen Shixing are now teaching martial art to the public. These classes have appealed many foreigners to go to the world-famous Wudang Mountains to learn more about Chinese Kung Fu as well as its cultural background. At present, many gymnasium are under built to provide better atmosphere for the practitioners.

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    History of Tai Chi Chuan

    Heluo Civilization

    As the second longest river in China and the fifth longest river in the world, the Yellow River has left a profound influence in the development of civilization along the bank and is recognized as a crucial cradle of the Ethnic Han. As a result, in China it is also called as “Mother River”.

    Luohe River is another river occupying an indispensable status in Chinese history. To begin with, according to the I Ching, it was because the famous “Yellow River Map” and the ”Luohe River Writing” that the great emperor Fu Xi was able to invent Tai Chi and trigrams. More importantly it was also tightly connected to the creation of characters, pushing the primitive empire to the prosperity of civilization.

    It’s a natural phenomenon for the confluence of the Yellow River and Luohe River. Meanwhile, with the Yellow River being cloudy and the Luohe River being clear, a gigantic whirlpool was formed, where the limpid and muddy water were transparently separated and were continuously changing.

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    Since the beginning Heluo Region has always been a cultural center of Tai Chi, preserving the core of traditional Chinese culture. It is said that many great emperors including Huang-ti, Shennong, Xia Yu, Shang Tang held ceremony to offer sacrifices to ancestors there when they succeeded to the throne

    Located right in the joint of the Yellow River and the Luohe River, Wen County is among the earliest regions to be habited by human beings where numerous historical heritages (such as Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture) can be found. According to historical research the county already enjoyed a prosperous economy since the Warring State Period and the Qin and Han Dynasties. It’s also the hometown of many famous people including the famous politician Sima Yi and Guo Xi. Moreover, the warm temperate continental monsoon climate provides agreeable atmosphere to the development of agriculture, making it a even more comfortable place to live.

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    Hometown of Chinese Martial Art

    The Chen Village of Wen County in Honan province is a cultural center where Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism coexist and learn from each other to push forward the progress of Chinese civilization.

    At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the ancestor of Chen Village who inherited the martial art practices from his family moved there from Shanxi province. At that time, villagers were continuously harassed by bandits, leading to the establishment of martial art institute aiming to protect the habitants. As a result, the practice of Wu Shu gradually gained popularity within the area.

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    Chen Wangting (1600-1680), who is the 9th successor of Chen Village, was extremely diligent since childhood. He used to practice martial art during the daytime while studied literature at night. Not only did he exceled in the understanding of the martial art handed down by his ancestors but also he was incredibly knowledgeable and familiar with the Confucianism and Taoism. Young as he was, those bandits became scared to death upon hearing his name.

    Later he retired to the village to devote himself to the study of I Ching with the book named <The Yellow Court Classic> (Huang Ting Jing) as well as systemize the folk martial art. Based on the theory of Tai Chi, he combined traditional theory of the balance between human and nature, the theories of Yin and Yang, the heritage of his ancestors, the strengths enjoyed by other schools and his own understanding of Chinese Medicine and Taoism so as to eventually create Tai Chi Chuan, a kind of martial art featured as a balance of softness and hardness, a transformation of Yin and Yang, changeable and unparalleled.

    Honored by its origin of Tai Chi Chuan, the Wen County is recognized as a place of interest by an ever-increasing number of tourists. Each year, numerous people come to visit the word-famous Tai Chi Museum and show their homage to the masters of Tai Chi Chuan.

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    Schools of Tai Chi Chuan

    After the creation of Tai Chi Chuan by Chen Wangting, for centuries the word-famous martial art was passed down through generations within the Chen Village. When it came to Chen Changxing(1771-1853) and Chen Youben(1780-1858), they developed the first routine and second routine of big frame and second frame, and systemized the theories, issuing books named <Ten Essentials of Tai Chi Chuan>, <Essentials of Tai Chi Chuan as a Martial Art> and <Tai Chi Chuan for Self-Defense>.

    Tai Chi Chuan began to spread to the whole China in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. Yang Luchan(1799-1872), the first disciple outside the family tree of Chen, developed the Yang-Style and taught Tai Chi Chuan in Beijing. Moreover, the 15th successor Chen Qingping(1795-1868) taught Tai Chi Chuan to several disciples, giving rise to the emergence of He-Style and Wu(Hao)-Style,etc.

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    Later on Wu Jianquan(1870-1942) created Wu-Style(108 Form), Li Ruidong(1851-1917) developed Li-Style and Sun Lutang(1860-1933) brought about Sun-Style. In the mid of 20th century, the 17th successor of Chen family named Chen Fake(1887-1957) furthered the Tai Chi Chuan to first and second routine of the new frame.

    These three centuries witnessed the development from a secret of Chen Village to a great number of schools that benefited much more people in terms of physical and psychological health.

    Derived from the status of Wu-ji(a uniform state without differentiation), Tai Chi was then divided into Yin and Yang, which then gave rise to the three treasures to reflect four images. These four images eventually generated create eight trigrams.

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    General features

    Emphasizing the stillness to overcome motion, softness to conquer hardness, Tai Chi distinguishes itself for different movements based on situations. Practitioners believe that the best way to win is to take action according to their adversary, which means to firstly intrigue opponents to move or distract them and then apply strategies to fight back. This can not only develop one’s speed of action and strength, but also of significance in the training of fighting techniques. Following the Yin-Yang Theory, practitioners sense adversary by their ears and fight back using their opponents’ strengths. Its power of eight directions include Peng(Warding off), Lv(rolling back), Ji(pressing), An (pushing), Cai(pulling down), Lie(splitting),Zhou(elbowing), Kao(body stroke), Jin(advancing), Tui(retreating), Gu(shifting left), Pan(shifting right),Ding(central equilibrum).

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    Comprehensiveness

    As a combination of classical literature, regimen, physics, medicine, martial art, Physiology, psychology and sports mechanics, Tai Chi Chuan involves the relationship between human beings and society, human and nature as well as questions related to ourselves. As a result, it reflects the worldview, attitudes towards life, moral system and views of competition.

    Adaptability

    Due to its smooth movements and moderate speed, it’s extremely accessible to general public, regardless of age or constitution. The practice of Tai Chi Chuan is not limited in the senior citizens because adjustment can be made to cater for different health condition. In this way, Tai Chi Chuan meets various needs ranging from improvement of Kung Fu, achieving longevity to get a better understanding of life.

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    Security

    Famous for its flexibility and softness, the practice of Tai Chi Chuan can soothe the stiffness of office work and guard against injuries to muscles, joint and ligament. Meanwhile it is able to help develop a healthy way of breathing and exercising in order to minimize the possibility of chest distress and blood congestion.

    Schools

    Yang-Style

    Yang-Style of Tai Chi Chuan was founded by Yang Luchan (1799-1872) from Hebei province. Yang Luchan, who was one of the disciples of Chen Changxing, was the 7th generation successor of Tai Chi Chuan. While Yang was teaching in Beijing, he found that most of his royal disciples were feeble and could not stand tough training. Therefore, he transformed demanding movements in Tai Chi Chuan into accessible ones which were mild and gentle. This transformation enabled people wearing long pigtail and gowns to do exercises to keep fit and was later credited as Yang-Style. However, it should be noted that Yang-Style consists of two frames, namely health preserving frame and attack and defense frame.

    Choose professional Ancestral Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan at http://www.icnbuys.com/tai-chi-dvd

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    Wu(Hao)-Style

    Wu(Hao)-Style of Tai Chi Chuan was founded by Wu Yuxiang(1825-2893) from Hebei province. As one of the disciples of Chen Qingping, Wu was the 8th generation successor of Tai Chi Chuan. He was greatly amazed by the Tai Chi Chuan of his fellow Yang Luchan and decided to grasp a better understanding of it. In 1852 he went to Honan province to serve an apprenticeship to Chen Qingping, from whom Wu learnt the small frame and got <Tai Chi Chuan Spectrum>. He was greatly inspired then and based on his knowledge and comprehension he created a series of new movements featured as agile, sophisticated, elegant and classical. This type of Tai Chi Chuan was later recognized as Wu(Hao)-Style.

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    Wu-Style

    Wu-Style of Tai Chi Chuan was founded by Quan You(1834-1902). As one of the disciples of Yang Banhou(1837-1892,the son of Yang Luchan), his style was famous for the softness and moderation. Based on his own understanding he made some changes on Yang-Style. His son, Jian Quan, who followed the Chinese surname Wu, removed repetition and jumping to later formed a series of natural, soft and smooth movements which was named Wu-Style.

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    Sun-Style

    Wu-Style of Tai Chi Chuan was founded by Sun Lutang(1860-1933). Sun Lutang is a master of martial art who inherited the essence of Tai Chi Chuan from Hao Weizhen. In 1918, he combined Tai Chi Chuan, Xing Yi Chuan and Eight Diagram to create Sun-Style Tai Chi Chuan characterized as its excellent flexibility and diversity.

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    He-Style

    He-Style Tai Chi Chuan was founded by He Zhaoyuan(1810-1890) from Wen County.He Zhaoyuan, who is among the most famous disciples of Chen Qingping, is the eighth generation successor of Tai Chi Chuan. Based on original Tai Chi Chuan He attached some modification on the movement to enhance its practicality and power. In addition, he also created a series of framework to combine physical exercises with martial training according to the physical characteristics of human beings. In this way, He-Style not only maintained the traditional practice but also had its own specialty.

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    Development in the contemporary age

    After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong used to encourage people to practice Tai Chi Chuan. The traditional martial art has been gaining more popularity ever since the reform and opening up policy in 1978 with the support from Chairman Deng Xiaoping.

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    Meanwhile, the practice of Tai Chi Chuan passed from generation to generation in Chen Village of Wen County with numerous world-class masters. It is said that he who merely drops by Chen Village is able to do the martial art.

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    There are various kinds of martial art schools in the Wen County, where more than 2000 registered students and 8000 mobile students are currently learning Tai Chi Chuan. In addition, over 300 masters of Tai Chi Chuan have opened up more than 300 martial art schools or institutions.

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    Nowadays Tai Chi Chuan is not only widely practiced in China, but it is gaining popularity worldwide as well. Throughout these years, masters have dedicated themselves to spread this treasured martial art to over 150 countries and regions, making it one of the most favored sport for martial art and exercise with more than 150 million practitioners.

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    To enhance its capability to accommodate visitors, Wen County has undergone a series of changes including widening the roads, building Tai Chi Chuan museums and establishing infrastructures, etc. With all these improvement, the future of Wen County as 4A-class scenic spot is quite promising. Moreover, a brand new project aiming to build a culture exchange center including Tai Chi institutions, Tai Chi basis and Tai Chi hotels has been launched and has been valued by ordinary people and supported by government.

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    With the investment of government of Honan province in order to build Chen Village into an ecological park featured as the origin of Tai Chi, eco-agriculture and eco-tourism will be practiced on the ancient land. In the foreseeable future, it will become a multifunctional region with tourism, health maintenance, photography, sketching and perseverance of historical relic.

    As a symbol of Chinese culture, Tai Chi Chuan serves as a bridge linking Eastern culture and Western culture. It’s significant to preserve Tai Chi Chuan in order to promote Chinese civilization, enhance the quality of life and eventually build a more harmonious society.

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    Theories

    A Combination of I Ching and the Five Elements

    The inner system of human body never stops functioning. According to I Ching, everything in the world exist in the form of movement, which is a delicate balance between Yin and Yang. This is also true in terms of human beings.

    .According to I Ching, things and phenomena which are warm, ascending, bright, exciting, superfluous and dynamic can be characterized as Yang. On the contrary, those cold, descending, dim, repressive and static things and phenomena belong to Yin. Following this theory, Tai Chi Chuan is a sport with the balance of Yin and Yang.

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    Combining Tao Yin in traditional Chinese medicine, unique way of expiration and inspiration and Chi Gong

    Tao Yin is a traditional approach of keeping fit in Chinese medicine. Through breathing, stretching and pitching, the blood can easily reach all over the body and promote the fitness.

    When we practice Tai Chi Chuan, Tao Yin helps to normalize the function of our heart so as to facilitate the movement of our blood and energy. According to ancient Chinese doctors, the heart is in charge of the performance of the vein and the adjustment of all the organs. It is the most important organ of human which determines our activity without which our blood could not reach all over our body. As a result, Chen Wangting created Tai Chi Chuan on the basis of inherited martial art and Tao Yin to promote the circulation of blood when one fully relaxes himself. In this way, Tai Chi Chuan becomes an efficient way for us to keep healthy.

    Tu Na is also an approach in traditional Chinese medicine of keeping healthy. Tu means to expire while Na involves inspiring. As an art of inspiration and expiration, Tu Na is a way to get off the stagnant things and bring in the fresh air so as to maintain a healthy life circle.

    Our lung is in charge of respiratory function, which is among the most important organic function in metabolism. Through Tu Na we are able to get in fresh air (oxygen) and discharge useless air (carbon dioxide).
    To combine the movements in Tai Chi Chuan with Tu Na, firstly the movements cannot pose any threat to the inspiration and expiration of lung to guarantee the normal function of metabolism. Moreover, these movements facilitate the flowing of the blood inside our body, embarking a virtuous cycle of life. Finally, the outcome of this process helps to nurture the whole body.
    Combing the movements with the theories of Tao Yin and Tu Na, Tai Chi Chuan serves to enhance the attack and defense while maintain a healthy life.

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    Combing movements with channels and collaterals in traditional Chinese medicine theory

    Traditional Chinese medicine channels and collaterals theory focused on the physical functions, variance of pathology, and interaction between channels and collaterals and viscera. It constitutes a significant part of the traditional Chinese medicine.

    Channels and collaterals are of vital importance to the flowing of blood and adjusting different functions of human’s body, which means that we need to spare no efforts to keep them expedite.

    Combing advantages of different schools while maintaining its uniqueness

    Consulting the work of a world-famous general Qi Jiguang(1528-1587) and different schools, Chen Wangting finally created Tai Chi Chuan whose power beyond imagination.

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    Origins

    After settling down in the village, ancestors of Chen family built institutions to teach villagers martial art for the purpose of self-defense.

    Chen Wangting used to render high service to the regime by eliminating the thieves and robbers, yet his contribution was not acknowledged by the government. As a result he retired to devote himself in cultivation and the study of Tai Chi Chuan. Tai Chi Chuan created by him involved a series of equipment from dao (a heavier curved saber, sometimes called a broadsword), jian(a straight double-edged sword, practiced as taichiian), gun(a 2m long wooden staff and practiced as taichigun), qiang,( a 2m long spear or a 4m long lance), etc. This kind of martial art involves many different aspects including theories of Yin and Yang, Chinese medicine concepts of Tao Yin and Tu Na, and the inherited practices of his family.

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    Key points of practicing

    Stay upright while try to stretch your neck upwards. Keep yourself relaxed and flexible and use your strength upright to stabilize your center of gravity.
    Do not lift your breasts. Keep your shoulders and elbows down to relax.
    Your hand gestures are expected to be in accordance with your eyes to integrate your movements. Action of legs are supposed to be as quiet as a cat.

    Remember to use your strength to guarantee the efficacy of the movements. Guide your strength by your mind and keep it in control.

    Abdominal respiration should be adopted to keep pace with your mind.

    Stay calm and focused while you are practicing Tai Chi Chuan. The movements are expected to be continuous, which means that your muscle should be relaxed yet closely connected.

    It is necessary that we keep a natural state when practicing Tai Chi Chuan to relax your mind. Meanwhile, you can also activate your emotion and eliminate all sorts of chronicle diseases of your body in the long run. Furthermore, you are supposed to lower and deeper your respiration so as to promote your blood circulation.

    It is because its function of enhancing health condition that Tai Chi Chuan is practiced and favored by people all over the world. People who suffer from neurasthenia, heart diseases, high blood pressure, tuberculosis, and trachitis can benefit from it. Please note that he who is inflicted with severe illness ought to consult the doctor before practicing.

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, it is necessary that we listen to our heart. Keeping a flexible status is recommended to master the practices. The next step is to build up inner strength under the guidance of mind. We need to integrate our mind, our force, and our movements outside-in. The body is the key during this procedure, which explains the reason why we are expected to strike a balance between mind and movements to guide our outside movements by our inner strength.

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    Actual combat
    There are two principles in practicing Tai Chi Chuan.
    First, act according to the precise anticipation of your opponent’s movement.
    Second, do not act recklessly to attack your opponent. Tempt him to strike first to get a better understanding of his situation.

    The essence of Tai Chi Chuan lies in beating your enemies with the minimum effort by using their strength against themselves. This can be achieved through a profound knowledge of your opponents and guiding your movements by your flexible mind. Meanwhile, you need to keep yourself static but ready for taking action at any moment. To do this, you are supposed to integrate the movement of all your body so that you can focus on a certain point and ace it precisely.
    Moreover, Tai Chi Chuan sensibly follows the rules of Newton mechanics such as the Lever Principle, Conservation of Momentum, Rules of Inertia, etc.

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    Analysis of routines

    Basics of Tai Chi Chuan 24 Movements

    Hand gesture:
    First, crimp your fingers and keep them together. Naturally lay your thumb against the second part of your index finger and middle finger.
    Second, separate your fingers and form an arc.
    Third, clench your fists and curl your elbows. Then form an arc with your arms and let your palms face yourself. Ensure that your hands are at the same altitude with your shoulders. Next, curl your arms and move them to the sides of your body. After that, put your arms between the height of shoulders and breast.
    Fourth, push forwards your hands with your elbows curled. Relax your body while doing so.
    Fifth, strike your fists forwards from your waist while keep your arms relaxed. Your fists are supposed to be between the height of shoulders and breast.
    Sixth, strike your fists above with your arms bent.

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    Practicing Tai Chi Chuan as a way of health maintenance

    Tai Chi Chuan exerts a positive impact on the function of our brain. Doing Tai Chi Chuan entails concentration and integration of body and mind, which exercise our brain to the fullest. In consequence, it can strengthen our organs and cure our diseases.

    Moreover, the delicate balance between dynamic and static can active and repress the activities of cerebral cortex so as to substantially alleviate the symptoms of neurasthenia, insomnia, and dizziness. In the long run, it can minimize the superexcitation of brain and keep sobriety.

    Emphasizing the significance of a easy mood during practice, you are expected to be relaxed both mentally and physically. Under the control of our brain, nerves and muscles will ease down to further ease our arteriole and alleviate its stiffness. In this way the blood pressure will witness a downward trend and regress to normal level, benefiting those high blood pressure patients. Accompanied with the rested physics and brain is a quicker recovery of excited nerves and fatigue muscles.

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    Practicing Tai Chi Chuan to enhance respiration

    Practicing Tai Chi Chuan is to relax with deep respiration so as to promote the normal function of organs. Then the hot air shall be able to travel freely throughout the body and produce some healthy aches in the body. People who undergo this procedure will experience a 1℃ rise in their body temperature and a glamorous complexion.
    Deep respiration facilitates the function of capillary, which alleviates the burden of our heart and preventing heart attacks. Moreover, the movements enhance the elasticity of our muscles and accelerate the pace of the blood cycle, guarding against cardiovascular diseases caused by clog of blood. In addition, the decline of thoracic diaphragm resulting from deep respiration enforces the movements of breast and belly, generating an approach of massage. This effect proves to facilitate digestion and absorption so as to deal with dyspepsia, diabetes and gatism. At the same time, deep respiration releases a huge amount of dirty air in exchange of fresh air to promote the efficiency and elasticity of lung. This prevents the emphysema and other lung illness.

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     Practicing Tai Chi Chuan to enhance the organs

    For our body

    To keep upright is to facilitate the blood cycle in order to keep yourself energetic. Moreover, the stretch and pull during your practicing guard against cervical spondylosis.

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    For waist

    Attaching great importance to the movements of waist, Tai Chi Chuan enhances the function of kidney. In addition, the combination of movements of abdominal muscle and diaphragm prevents the lumbago and back pain.

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    For eyes

    The concentration of practicing depends mostly on your eyes. As eyes are keys of communication, our eyesight is supposed to follow our movements to keep our mind and body integrated. This can not only exercises nerves of eyes, but promotes eyesight as well.

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    For joints and ligament

    Under the requirement of continuity and integration, our movements are led by our waist and joints, improving the function of our joints and ligament.

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    For muscles

    The quality of muscle depends largely on its flexibility and tenacity, which could all be realized through long-term practicing. It can also prevent the difficulty in walking resulting from beer bully. On the one hand, movements of muscle and ligament facilitate the practice of force. On the other hand, the regular squeezing encourages the blood of vein to renter into our heart.

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    For legs and feet

    Attaching significance to the practice of transition between virtuality and reality, Tai Chi Chuan enhances the force of feet. The practice between tense and relaxation exercises the muscles and ligament and facilitates your stride.

    Yet one cannot benefit from Tai Chi Chuan without perseverance. It is necessary that we treated it as an indispensible part of our daily life. Only with persistence can we achieve our goal to keep healthy and energetic.

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    Tai Chi Chuan to keep fit

    Tai Chi Chuan is an approach to polish our characters and build up our body. Paying attention to the guidance from our mind dredges jingluo so as to balance Yin and Yang, which is addressed by Western medicine as an approach to enhance immunity and recovery. It serves to cure diseases, cultivate and enlighten minds, build up shapes, self-defense and attack so as to foster a healthier life with better quality. As a sport benefiting both inside and outside of us, it fosters greater tenacity while generating vigor at the same time. As a result, it is treasured by both Chinese traditional medicine and Western medicine as a scientific approach to a wholesome life.

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    Combining air with force

    As an approach of keeping healthy, it is necessary that we strive to maintain enough air and force to facilitate our blood cycle within our body while enhance our power to attack and self defense.

    At present, most of Tai Chi Chuan performances officially released by National Athletic Committee such as 24 Forms and 88 Forms come from Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan. Li-Style and Wu-Style can also be traced back to it, suggesting its high reputation and prestigious statue.

    Tai-Chi-Chuan Tai-Chi-Chuan

    Brief history

    Yang Luchan(1799-1872)who was a disciple of Chen Changxing, is from Heibei province. Being a martial art enthusiast ever since his childhood, Yang struggled to make ends meet by working in a medicine shop. His boss, Chen Dehu from Chen Village, acknowledged his industriousness and reliability and sent him to Chen Village to work. It was a coincidence that during this time Chen Changxing was teaching at Chen Dehu’s house. Yang was quite eager to apprentice him, yet he was afraid of refusal. So he looked on as Chen Changxing taught Tai Chi Chuan and remembered these movements which he practiced later on in secret. Owing to his diligence, he managed to make progress. Later on his deeds were discovered by Chen Changxing, who regarded him as a gifted man and decided to teach him rather than punish him.

    Having learned the essence of Tai Chi Chuan, Yang went to Beijing with his second son Yang Banhou (1837-1892) and third son Yang Jianhou (1839-1917) to teach martial art. While Yang was teaching in Beijing, he found that most of his royal disciples were feeble and could not stand tough training. Therefore, he transformed demanding movements in Tai Chi Chuan into accessible ones which were mild and gentle. This transformation enabled people wearing long pigtail and gowns to do exercises to keep fit and was later credited as Yang-Style.

    Yang-Style was extremely popular in Beijing and Tianjin with numerous pupils.

    Tai Chi Chuan Tai Chi Chuan

    Specialties

    Style

    Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan is integrated, simplified and natural. Combining hardness with softness, it is very beautiful and flexible, appealing to general public and spreading overseas.

    Practicing Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan is like the ocean waves, which are continuous without cessation.

    As early as the 1930s, master Yang Chengfu proposed ’10 disciplines of Tai Chi Chuan’, the majority of which relates to the action.

    Staying upright is the most important feature of Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan. It entails two aspects: staying upright and do not bend down or lean back, and stretch the spine. These have been achieved by a number of masters.

    Tai-Chi-Chuan Tai-Chi-Chuan

    Move with elegance

    The specialty of Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan is its elegance, guaranteeing the stretching of limps and relaxation of body. Meanwhile, it’s a critical criterion that all the movements must attain required position.

    Move with softness and slowness

    This is exactly where Yang-Style distinguishes itself from others and at the same time, the reason contributing to its reputation overseas.

    After going to Chen Village to consult Chen for three times, Yang eventually established its mild style free from the bouncing, jumping and other movements requiring instantaneous strength. This is a unique approach to change between hardness and softness for both the old and the young. It is said that master Yang Chengfu also emphasized the significance of relaxation. He said”Relax! Relax! Relax! You will neglect it without my advice.” Sometimes, he could watch his disciples practicing without saying a word. Yet he stressed the importance of relaxation for several dozens of times. The character of mildness and softness also caters to the teaching of Lao Tz, the founder of Taoism, in that softness wins over hardness and governing by doing nothing that is against nature.

    Tai Chi Chuan Tai Chi Chuan

    Adopting an even speed of action
    Some styles emphasize a combination of fast movements and slow movements and hard strokes while Yang-Style sticks to its slow, mild and even action. One should keep the same speed as well as the same level of frame throughout the whole process. This requires us to keep the routine smooth from the very beginning to the end, balance the speed of hands and legs, and the balance between the former movement and the following movement.  It generally takes about 22 minutes to accomplish a traditional 85 forms Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan, while masters may spend 40 minutes to an hour doing so. In any occasion, the speed is supposed to be the same, which means that the speed in the debut determines the pace of the whole practicing period.

    It is required to pace as lightly as a cat and to move precisely and slowly, leading to the shift of the center of gravity evenly and cautiously.

    Tai Chi Chuan Tai Chi Chuan

    Distinction between full actions and empty actions

    According to Yang Chengfu, the essence of Tai Chi Chuan lies in its difference between its full actions and empty actions. It is precisely practiced in the 85-forms of Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan, in which legs bear the majority of the power. When the center of gravity is in the left leg, the left leg is full while the right one is empty and vice versa. Except for a few movements, almost in every occasion there is one full leg and another is empty. This character is extremely apparent in Yang-Style Tai Chi Chuan.

    Taichi-Yang style

    Taichi-Yang style was a sort of traditional Han Quan, which was one of important schools of TaiChi. Taichi-Yang style was developed by a group of people, including Yang Luchan, Yang Banhou, Yang Jian hou, Yang Shaohou, and Yang Chengfu. The gestures of Taichi-Yang style were considered very plain and easy, so it was very popular with people. That was exactly the reason why so many people chose to learn Taichi-Yang style. However, Taichi-Yang style had strict rules and standards about hands, arms, and eyes as well as body movements. Only by training it in a right way can learners reach a strict standard and make more progress.

    Taichi-Yang style Taichi-Yang style

    At present, China’s National Sports Committee officially declared that 88-styles, 24-styles and many other styles were evolved from Taichi-Yang Style. Actually, Taichi-Wu style and Taichi- Li style were both developed from Yang style. Taichi –yang style occupied the highest status in all kinds of TaiChi-styles.

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    The brief introduction of Taichi-Yang style

    Chinese name: Tai Ji

    English name: Yang Tai Chi & TaiChi-Yang style

    Initial creator: Yang Luchan(people in Han Dan city of Hebei province)

    Characteristics: soft and gentle movements; stretching out people’s body; standing straight; using softness against hardness;

    Related places: Hongji Bridge; the Old city of Guangfu

     

    The contents of Yang Tia Chi

    1. The history of its development

    Yang Luchan learned Tai Chi skills

    Yang went to the capital for teaching Tai Chi Quan

    Carrying out Yang Tai Chi

    The succession of Tai Chi Quan

    The origins of some legends

    1. The origin place

    The culture of old city

    The good reputation of old city

    1. Characteristics

    Special styles

    Soft and gentle movements

    Stretching out people’s body

    Standing straight

    Using softness against hardness;

    At an average speed in actions

    1. Weapons

    Tai Chi Swords

    Tai Chi knives

    Tai Chi Guns( a kind of long sticks like guns)

    1. The documentaries of Quan

    Non-material cultural heritage

    Taolu

    24-styles

    Tai Chi---Pao Chui

    Tai Chi---small, medium, big Jia( a kind of gesture in Tai Chi)

    1. The regulations

    The whole summary

    Hands

    Arms

    Palms

    Eyes

    Body

    1. Ten core rules
    2. The role and effectiveness
    3. The successors
    4. The classical books

     

     Yang Tai Chi Yang Tai Chi

    The history of development

    Yang Luchan secretly learned Tai Chi from masters

    Yang Fukui( 1799-1872), Luchan, who was from Hebei province. Yang was into learning Tai Chi at an young age. Owing to his family’s poverty, he had to work in “Tai He Tang”—a traditional Chinese medicine shop on Xi Guan street. His boss thought he was hardworking and intelligent, so he asked him to work at his home. At that time, Chen Changxin was teaching in his boss’s house. He had a good chance to see how the master taught his students. Yang was envious of those students while he had no time to learn from the master. Besides, he was worried that the master wouldn’t receive him as his student. Yang was so interested in Tai Chi that he secretly saw the master taught his students at the corner and tried to remember those movements, subsequently, he practiced by himself. After a period of time, he acquired a lot. Later on, he was discovered by the master and he thought he had talent in Tai Chi, then taught him Tai Chi in his spare time.

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